Our pages:



Monohybrid crosses and probability
Protein Synthesis
Paternity Test DNA
Mitosis Pictures
Light Intensity Activity
Exercise for Health
Crayfish Project/Dissection
Dichotomous Key
Lettuce Cell


The penny has two sides, which means that there are two possible outcomes: Heads or tails. The probability of it landing as heads is 50%.

If a penny is tossed one hundred times, the probability of it landing as heads is 50 out of 100, or 50%. This means that out of a hundred tosses, 50 will turn up as heads.

After tossing the penny ten times, we got 7 tails and 3 heads. But after tossing it one hundred times, we got 51 tails and 49 heads. As the number increased, the actual tosses became closer to the probability that was to be expected for this experiment.


There is a 25% chance of getting both heads. There is a 25% chance as well for the combinations of first heads, second tails; first tails, second heads; and both tails. These probabilities are also 1 out of 4.

After flipping two coins 100 times, we found the percentages of the tosses. 28% of the tosses were both heads, 17% of the tosses were first heads and then tails, 23% of the tosses were first tails and then heads, and 32% of the tosses were both tails. These were mainly close to the percentage we predicted based on probability, but not as close as the percentages of the first activity's tossings.


Egg #1: Yellow with all yellow babies (Starburst)
Egg #2: Orange and yellow with yellow/orange combo babies

What we already know:
What we still need to know:
Questions we have:
Answers to our questions:
Each egg represents a set of parents.
Each half of the eggs represents one parent.
Most of the babies would be the same color(s) as the parents.
Why yellow babies taste very nasty : (
Make a monohybrid cross to find the answers.
Which colors (parents) are recessive or dominant?
Yellow is reccesive.
Red is dominant.

Egg #1Yellow with all yellow babies (Starburst)

This means that the babies have a 100% chance of being yellow because both of the parents are yellow (recessive).


Egg #2Yellow and orange with yellow/orange combo babies (Starburst)

This means that the babies have a 50% chance of being yellow or orange because the one parent is yellow and one parent is orange.



The blocks above are codons.
Step two labels codons.

The above pictures are representing protein synthesis. During protein synthesis, two main things happen, transcription and translation. During transcription, corresponding RNA molecule is produced and one DNA double helix strand is the template by the RNA polymerase to synthesize a mRNA. The mRNA goes to the nucleus and cytoplasm then goes through different maturation like splicing when the non-coding sequences get eliminated. Last, the coding mRNA sequence is a unit of 3 nucleotides which is a codon.
During translation the mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide. This helps to guide the synthesis of a chain of amino acids, which form a protein. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm, which is where the ribosomes are located. There are four phases in which translation proceeds in: activation, initiation, elongation, and termination.

Paternity Test DNA

We believe that the father in the paternity test is the father. We think he is because the child and the father DNA all match each other closely.




DNA Replication:

This shows the process of DNA Replication
DNA replication happens in the synthesis phase or the “S phase” of mitosis.

The first step of DNA replication is when the hydrogen bonds are broken between the bases of two antiparallel strands. The unwinding of the strands happens in areas of the chains that are A-T because there are only two bonds between Adenine and Thymine and three in G and C. The two stands are split by an enzyme called helicase and the splitting starts at the “origin of replication”, which creates a structured called the replication fork.

The second step of DNA replication is when RNA primase is binded with the initiation point of the 3’-5’ parent chain. RNA nucleotides that bind to the DNA nucleotides of the 3’-5’ strand (due to hydrogen bonds) can be attracted by RNA primase.

The third step of DNA replication is known as the elongation process which differs for the 5’-3’and 3’-5’ template. The 3’-5’ proceeding daughter strand which uses a 5’-3’ template is the leading strand. It is the leading strand because DNA polymerase a can detect the template and keep adding nucleotides. The 3’-5’ template can’t be “read” or detected like the 5’-3’ stand can be which complicates the replication of the 3’-5’ template, and the new strand is known as the lagging strand. The lagging strand adds RNA primers and DNA polymerase a reads the template and adds length to the bursts. The Okazaki Fragments is the gap between the two RNA primers. Now the daughter cells are elongated.

The fourth step of DNA replication is when the DNA pol l-exonuclease, in the lagging strand, reads the fragments and removes RNA primers. DNA polymerase closes the gaps along with the action of DNA ligase.

The fifth and final step to DNA replication is termination. Termination is what happens when DNA polymerase reaches the strands’ ends. In the last part of the lagging strand, RNA primer is removed which makes it impossible to seal the gap. This causes the end of the parental strand to not replicate. The ends of linear DNA has noncoding DNA that holds repeat sequences known as telomeres (a part of telomere is removed in every DNA replication cycle). DNA replication isn’t complete until a mechanism of repair fixes possible errors that were caused by the replication itself. Enzymes such as nucleases take away the incorrect nucleotides and DNA polymerase then fills the gaps.

In conclusion, DNA replication is the process by which one strand of DNA duplicates so that there is an end product of two strands. This begins with one strand of DNA, shown to the very left in our diagram. This strand then proceeds to "unzip", so that the bases in the middle break apart and become two unfinished strands. In the last step, base "subnits", which are the red, yellow, green, and blue ladder rungs, attach to the unfinished DNA strands from the second step. They close up the gap on either side of the DNA, and two new DNA strands are consequently formed.

A sufficient opening of the replication fork, DNA polymerase starts to synthesize a part of the complementary strand. The preceding is the Okazaki.

When the replication fork of a strand moves towward the 3' the newly synthesized DNA begins as Okazaki fragments.

Telomeres are very important because they shrink steadily with each mitosis and it may make a finite life span on cells. When placed in culture, cells don't grow infinitely. Some cells such as some cancerous cells, cells of germline, and unicellular eukaryotic cells are all immortal. The older someone is, the less their cells divide, which causes them to die out.

An enzyme that adds telomere repeate sequences to the end of the 3' DNA strands is telomerase. The synthesis of the "incomplete ends" of the opposite strands is completed by lenghtening this strand of DNA polymerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein, its single snoRNA molecule, protein component, catalytic action, and a reverse transcriptase. It is only found in germline cells, unicellular eukaryotes, some adult stem cells, progenitor cells, and cancerous cells.

Transplanted Cells:
One way to gene therapy is to remove all the cells from the patient, transform them with what the patient can't synthesize, and return them to the patient. Cells could have an unlimited life span transformed with therapeutic gene and active telomerase gene. Although, these cells still show contact inhibition as normal cells do when they are grown in culture, they don't grow in tumors when injected into immunodeficient mice like cancer does, etc.

The amount of time spent in culture before they were used is why cloning isn't good because it shortens telomeres. These shortened telomeres cause euthanization at a younger age.

DNA ligase:
DNA ligase links together strands of DNA with double-strand breaks. Also, in a single-strand break, DNA ligase is still required to create the final phosphodiester bond to repair the DNA completely.

Telomeres are extra pieces of DNA at the end of chromosomes that don’t mean anything. Telomeres are used to protect the chromosomes from being destroyed. These help keep the important DNA enzymes from being broken off. The older you are the longer your telomeres are. The older you get the shorter your telomeres become; they get shorter because most of it has been knocked off. Once your telomeres are all gone then important pieces of DNA are broken off and your DNA can’t replicate itself as well resulting in more cells dying than being made.

Cancer is a disease caused by out of control growth of mutated cells. In the body mutated cells are usually killed by apoptosis. Cancer happens when the cell avoids the apoptosis and continues multiplying. Cancer will usually start out with a tumor and can affect people at all ages although age increases your risk of getting it. Cancer is usually acquired due to deformities in genetics, DNA replication errors, or inherited in the cells at birth.

Stromata is the framework that supports the cell.
The guard cell is one of two epidermal cells that border the stromata pore that and opens or closes it.

Light Intensity Activity

In this activity, we were instructed to use an online simulation to determine which combination of Light Intensity and Wavelength would efficiently create the most ATP. Each time we tested a different set of numbers, we changed one variable at a time. After several tries, we found that 425 nanometers of wavelength tended to make the percent of maximal ATP at a larger percent. After discovering this, we changed the Light Intensity until we found a number that provided 100% maximal ATP, which was 200.

We recorded some information on which combinations provided 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70%. They are listed below.

Light Intensity
Percent of Maximal ATP
ATP created in five minutes
425 nanometers
425 nanometers
425 nanometers
425 nanometers

The color spectrum and wavelength:

(Infra) Red- 750 nm
Red- 700 nm
Orange- 650 nm
Yellow- 600 nm
Green- 550 nm
Cyan- 500 nm
Blue- 450 nm
(Ultra) violet- 400 nm

We found that the best condition for creating ATP is a Light Intensity of 200 and a Wavelength of 425 nanometers.

After finding the right combination, we let the simulation go on for five minutes to see how many ATP were made during this process. 50 ATP were created using the combination we found for 100%. After experimenting, we realized that the lower the Wavelength and higher the light intensity, the more ATP tends to be created. The lower the Light Intensity and higher the Wavelength, the less ATP is generally created. A low Wavelength and low Light Intensity makes a low amount of ATP. When there is a higher Wavelength, the molecules move faster.

Some background information on light Intensity: Light Intensity is how bright and how powerful the wavelength of light is. Light Intensity is measured in Candela, which is the unit of luminous Intensity. Plants that are a sun tolerant plant can more easily adapt to a more intense light environment. Also at low intensities photosynthesis will waste away until it gets more energy.

These three key factors in photosynthesis are related by the following: a wave’s energy is proportionate to the wave’s frequency and the energy of a wave is the opposite in proportion to its wavelength. When the light intensity is too low or too high it can hinder the plant by not being able its maximum ATP. The preceding means that the more energy in a wavelength, the greater frequency and smaller wavelength.

Exercise for Health

Two exercisers: Danielle Pascuzzo and Milea Schall
Timer: Megan McCully
Measure bromothymol blue solution: Danica Ference
Recorder: Taylor Powell

Danielle (sedentary) Milea (very active)

Both exercisers are running for 60 seconds


Who produces more carbon dioxide?


Danielle produces more carbon dioxide.



Cell Size Lab


Crayfish Dissection Pictures

A guy walks into a restaurant, sits down to order, and asked the waiter if they serve crayfish.
The waiter says yes. The guy says 'I'll have a pizza'. He points to a chair and says, 'and a
plate of chips for my crayfish friend here.'

A crayfish molts (loses its skin for a new shell) about once in its life. Then it eats the old skin!

If you had a pet crayfish, would you want a boy or a girl?
Boy - 36%
Girl - 27%
Neither. Crayfish creep me out - 36%

*Members of our group and what we plan to do:

Taylor Powell - Define the structures of the crayfish and their functions.
Danielle Pascuzzo - Find the locations and functions of the organs of the crayfish.
Megan McCully - Find definitions for the analogy of the crayfish.
Danica Ference - Determine the similarities and differences of the crayfish compared to other, much different animals. The Same or Not the Same?
Milea Schall - Find similarities and differences between the crayfish and other crustaceans. Distinctions of Crayfish

Here are some pictures we took during the crayfish dissection!


This is the Dichotomous Key we created, referring to several types of candy that we observed.