Team members:
AustinW
MasonS
DevanP

Our previous information
DNA Replication Model
Light Intensity

Leaf Structures
Mitosis Review
Protein Synthesis
Monohybrid Crosses and Probability




Monohybrid Crosses and Probability

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 1
We flipped a penny 10 times. Here are the results:
Heads - 2/10
Tails - 8/10

We flipped a penny for 100 times. Here are the results:
Heads - 49/100
Tails - 51/100
This is close to the expected number of 50 for heads and tails for 100 flips because both numbers were 1 off.

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 2
Flip #
Penny 1
Penny 2
1
Heads
Heads
2
Heads
Tails
3
Tails
Tails
4
Tails
Tails
5
Tails
Heads
6
Heads
Heads
7
Heads
Tails
8
Tails
Tails
9
Tails
Tails
10
Heads
Tails
11
Tails
Heads
12
Tails
Tails
13
Heads
Tails
14
Heads
Heads
15
Heads
Tails
16
Tails
Heads
17
Tails
Heads
18
Heads
Tails
19
Tails
Heads
20
Heads
Tails
21
Heads
Heads
22
Tails
Tails
23
Heads
Heads
24
Heads
Heads
25
Heads
Heads
26
Heads
Heads
27
Tails
Heads
28
Heads
Heads
29
Tails
Tails
30
Tails
Heads
31
Heads
Tails
32
Tails
Heads
33
Tails
Heads
34
Tails
Tails
35
Heads
Heads
36
Tails
Tails
37
Tails
Tails
38
Heads
Tails
39
Tails
Heads
40
Tails
Tails
41
Heads
Heads
42
Heads
Tails
43
Tails
Heads
44
Tails
Heads
45
Tails
Heads
46
Tails
Tails
47
Heads
Tails
48
Tails
Tails
49
Heads
Heads
50
Tails
Heads
51
Tails
Heads
52
Heads
Tails
53
Heads
Heads
54
Tails
Tails
55
Tails
Heads
56
Heads
Heads
57
Tails
Heads
58
Heads
Heads
59
Tails
Tails
60
Tails
Tails
61
Tails
Tails
62
Tails
Heads
63
Heads
Heads
64
Tails
Tails
65
Heads
Tails
66
Heads
Tails
67
Heads
Heads
68
Tails
Heads
69
Tails
Heads
70
Heads
Tails
71
Tails
Heads
72
Tails
Heads
73
Tails
Tails
74
Heads
Tails
75
Tails
Heads
76
Heads
Tails
77
Heads
Heads
78
Tails
Heads
79
Tails
Heads
80
Heads
Tails
81
Tails
Tails
82
Heads
Tails
83
Heads
Heads
84
Heads
Tails
85
Tails
Tails
86
Tails
Heads
87
Tails
Tails
88
Tails
Heads
89
Heads
Heads
90
Tails
Heads
91
Tails
Heads
92
Heads
Tails
93
Tails
Heads
94
Heads
Tails
95
Heads
Heads
96
Heads
Heads
97
Heads
Tails
98
Tails
Tails
99
Tails
Heads
100
Tails
Heads
Chances: Both Heads - 25%
One head one tail - 50%
Both tails - 25%
44/100 Heads in Penny 1
56/100 Tails in Penny 1
54/100 Heads in Penny 2
45/100 Tails in Penny 2

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 3
What We Already Know
What We Still Need to Know
Questions We Still Have
Answers to the Questions
Each part of parent gives 1 set



each half of egg is parent



red and red make red



red & yellow make orange



the two halves of eggs that are the same color have kids that are the all the same color



Parents RR kids RR
Parents Rr kids Rr







egg colors red & red =4 red
Red & yellow = 4 orange

RED RED = 4 RED
R
R
R
RR
RR
R
RR
RR
RED YELLOW = 4 ORANGE
R
R
r
Rr
Rr
R
RR
RR



Medaka Journal
First prediction of birth date - 13 days
Second prediction of birth date - 10 days
Heartbeat on day 4 - 83 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 8 - 120 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 9 - 190 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 10 - 210 beats per minute
Frank_day_1_labeled.jpg
Day 1





Protein Synthesis

Transcription & Translation Pictures
penman_synthesis.png
Before Transcription


Austin_synthesis_2.png
After Transcription


Stiver_translation.jpg
mRNA traveling to the ribosome


Stiver_protein_synthesis.jpg
Translation






Mitosis Review

Interphase
Interphase_2.png
Interphase is the normal functioning the cell before mitosis.

Prophase
Prophase.png
Prophase is the step of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense and the cell membrane disappears. The large yellow ovals are the nuclear membrane, the blue and orange "Xs" are the chromosomes, the turquoise squares are the spindle fibers.

Metaphase
metaphase_austin.png
During Metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate. The red squares are centrioles and the green lines are spindle fibers. Please disregard the large black square and the gray line.

Anaphase
anaphase_2.png

Anaphase is the step of mitosis where the chromosomes begin to slit.

Telephase
Penman_Telephase.png
During Telephase, membranes form around the nucleus and the chromosomes are pulled to the poles from the spindle fibers. The olive oval represents the whole cell, the red circles represent the nuclei, the green lines represent the spindle fibers, the black x's represent the chromosomes, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the small dots represent the separation between the nuclei's.

Cytokinesis
Penman_Cytokinesis.png
During cytokinesis, the cell membrane pinches in and the cytoplasm is divided between the cells to form two separate cells. The olive semicircles represent the 2 cells, the red circles represent the nuclei's, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the black x's represent the chromosomes.





DNA Replication Model

First, the DNA double Helix untwists. Then, the bases separate into left and right sides. The enzyme that completes this task is DNA helicase. Each side of “ladder” is a template for the new strands of DNA. Next, new bases and a phosphate sugar backbone attach to the left side template. This also occurs with the right side template. Finally, you have two identical DNA strands.

The telomeres will keep the ends of the chromosomes on the DNA strand from attaching to each other and from destruction. The telomerase causes the sequence ("TTAGGG") of DNA to repeat. This is usually found in cancer cells. Okazaki fragments are located on the lagging strand of the DNA and are normally short. These strands are bound together by DNA ligase. DNA ligase I connects the hydroxyl ends of nucleotide to another nucleotide's phosphate end. DNA ligase II is found in non-dividing cells. DNA ligase III helps repair breaks and mutations in DNA. DNA ligase IV catalyzes the final step in DNA double strand repair. Cancer cells are cells that have mutations as we learned from Mr. Albright. These cells are not able to divide indefinitely. During cell cycle cancer caused the telomeres to become shorter. During gene therapy, cells are removed from the patient, then transformed with the gene that is needed by the patient. Then, they are returned to the patient. The only problem with this is cells have short lifespans. So, the patient needs fresh transplants every so often. Every time a cell completes mitosis, the telomeres of the cell shrink. Once these telomeres are gone, the cell will die. This is what causes cellular aging. Cells in younger people will reproduce through mitosis many more times the cells in older people. During cloning, the nucleus of a cell is copied. The telomeres that are copied tend to be shorter than the telomeres in the original cell. Also, the age of the donor cell had an affect on the size of the telomeres.

Pictures
Separate_ladder.png full_ladder.png 2_strands.png
Separated Full 2 Strands
half_ladder.png

Half

Key
:
Red squares- sugars
Blue circles- phosphates
Yellow end caps- telomeres
Yellow "T"- Thymine
Green "A"- Adenine
Purple "G"- Guanine
Blue "C"- Cytosine




Leaf Structures
Stiver_Stomata.png
Stiver_Guard_Cell.png

Both the stoma and guard cells are of extreme importance because they allow gas exchange. Without the gas exchange, the plant wouldn’t be able to photosynthesize. In order for the plant to make energy it must have CO2 and H2O. Without the guard cells foreign objects could possibly pass into the leaf. This could cause the leaf to die. Thus without the stomata and guard cells, the leaves would not be able to survive.



Light Intensity
We timed the cycle for 7:30 and these are our results.
Tries
Wavelength
% Maximum Produced (nm)
Light Intensity
ATP Produced
1
575
6%
100
5
2
575
4.8%
80
4
3
600
10%
100
8
4
575
3.6%
60
3
5
625
29%
100
22
6
575
7.2%
120
6
7
575
3.6%
60
3
8
650
42.5%
100
32
9
575
8.4%
140
7
10
550
7.5%
100
6
11
675
13.8%
100
11
12
575
9.6%
160
8
13
575
2.4%
40
2
14
650
51%
120
38
15
575
10.8%
180
9
16
575
1.2%
20
1
17
650
76.5%
180
56
18
650
85%
200
63
19
420
100%
200
75
Light intensity is the measure of wavelength emitted by a source in a particular direction. We can only see wavelengths that are between 400 and 700nm. After completing this experiment, we found that a combination of 420nm wavelength and 200lux of light intensity produced the most ATP. A wavelength of 420nm is considered to be violet light. Violet light is the shortest wavelength. The light is scattered the most efficiently in violet light. In wavelengths that have a higher amount of nm, the distance between waves is longer. Also, as the wavelengths gained in nm, the colors that we perceive light as change. Light changes from violet to blue to green to yellow to orange and finally to red. This connects to light intensity, because the shorter the wavelength, the higher the intensity of the light. The only problem with this combination of wavelength and intensity is that the plant would get burnt out very quickly.
This connects to the light reaction of photosynthesis because whenever you have too high of a light intensity, then the plant will not produce the maximum ATP that it can. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html

stiver_chloro_2.png


stiver_chloro.png