Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 1
We flipped a penny 10 times. Here are the results:
Heads - 2/10
Tails - 8/10

We flipped a penny for 100 times. Here are the results:
Heads - 49/100
Tails - 51/100
This is close to the expected number of 50 for heads and tails for 100 flips because both numbers were 1 off.

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 2

Flip #

Penny 1

Penny 2

1

Heads

Heads

2

Heads

Tails

3

Tails

Tails

4

Tails

Tails

5

Tails

Heads

6

Heads

Heads

7

Heads

Tails

8

Tails

Tails

9

Tails

Tails

10

Heads

Tails

11

Tails

Heads

12

Tails

Tails

13

Heads

Tails

14

Heads

Heads

15

Heads

Tails

16

Tails

Heads

17

Tails

Heads

18

Heads

Tails

19

Tails

Heads

20

Heads

Tails

21

Heads

Heads

22

Tails

Tails

23

Heads

Heads

24

Heads

Heads

25

Heads

Heads

26

Heads

Heads

27

Tails

Heads

28

Heads

Heads

29

Tails

Tails

30

Tails

Heads

31

Heads

Tails

32

Tails

Heads

33

Tails

Heads

34

Tails

Tails

35

Heads

Heads

36

Tails

Tails

37

Tails

Tails

38

Heads

Tails

39

Tails

Heads

40

Tails

Tails

41

Heads

Heads

42

Heads

Tails

43

Tails

Heads

44

Tails

Heads

45

Tails

Heads

46

Tails

Tails

47

Heads

Tails

48

Tails

Tails

49

Heads

Heads

50

Tails

Heads

51

Tails

Heads

52

Heads

Tails

53

Heads

Heads

54

Tails

Tails

55

Tails

Heads

56

Heads

Heads

57

Tails

Heads

58

Heads

Heads

59

Tails

Tails

60

Tails

Tails

61

Tails

Tails

62

Tails

Heads

63

Heads

Heads

64

Tails

Tails

65

Heads

Tails

66

Heads

Tails

67

Heads

Heads

68

Tails

Heads

69

Tails

Heads

70

Heads

Tails

71

Tails

Heads

72

Tails

Heads

73

Tails

Tails

74

Heads

Tails

75

Tails

Heads

76

Heads

Tails

77

Heads

Heads

78

Tails

Heads

79

Tails

Heads

80

Heads

Tails

81

Tails

Tails

82

Heads

Tails

83

Heads

Heads

84

Heads

Tails

85

Tails

Tails

86

Tails

Heads

87

Tails

Tails

88

Tails

Heads

89

Heads

Heads

90

Tails

Heads

91

Tails

Heads

92

Heads

Tails

93

Tails

Heads

94

Heads

Tails

95

Heads

Heads

96

Heads

Heads

97

Heads

Tails

98

Tails

Tails

99

Tails

Heads

100

Tails

Heads

Chances: Both Heads - 25%
One head one tail - 50%
Both tails - 25%
44/100 Heads in Penny 1
56/100 Tails in Penny 1
54/100 Heads in Penny 2
45/100 Tails in Penny 2

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 3

What We Already Know

What We Still Need to Know

Questions We Still Have

Answers to the Questions

Each part of parent gives 1 set

each half of egg is parent

red and red make red

red & yellow make orange

the two halves of eggs that are the same color have kids that are the all the same color

Parents RR kids RR
Parents Rr kids Rr

egg colors red & red =4 red
Red & yellow = 4 orange

RED RED = 4 RED

R

R

R

RR

RR

R

RR

RR

RED YELLOW = 4 ORANGE

R

R

r

Rr

Rr

R

RR

RR

Medaka Journal
First prediction of birth date - 13 days
Second prediction of birth date - 10 days
Heartbeat on day 4 - 83 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 8 - 120 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 9 - 190 beats per minute
Heartbeat on day 10 - 210 beats per minute

Day 1

Protein Synthesis

Transcription & Translation Pictures

Before Transcription

After Transcription

mRNA traveling to the ribosome

Translation

Mitosis Review

Interphase

Interphase is the normal functioning the cell before mitosis.

Prophase

Prophase is the step of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense and the cell membrane disappears. The large yellow ovals are the nuclear membrane, the blue and orange "Xs" are the chromosomes, the turquoise squares are the spindle fibers.

Metaphase

During Metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate. The red squares are centrioles and the green lines are spindle fibers. Please disregard the large black square and the gray line.

Anaphase

Anaphase is the step of mitosis where the chromosomes begin to slit.

Telephase

During Telephase, membranes form around the nucleus and the chromosomes are pulled to the poles from the spindle fibers. The olive oval represents the whole cell, the red circles represent the nuclei, the green lines represent the spindle fibers, the black x's represent the chromosomes, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the small dots represent the separation between the nuclei's.

Cytokinesis

During cytokinesis, the cell membrane pinches in and the cytoplasm is divided between the cells to form two separate cells. The olive semicircles represent the 2 cells, the red circles represent the nuclei's, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the black x's represent the chromosomes.

DNA Replication Model
First, the DNA double Helix untwists. Then, the bases separate into left and right sides. The enzyme that completes this task is DNA helicase. Each side of “ladder” is a template for the new strands of DNA. Next, new bases and a phosphate sugar backbone attach to the left side template. This also occurs with the right side template. Finally, you have two identical DNA strands.

The telomeres will keep the ends of the chromosomes on the DNA strand from attaching to each other and from destruction. The telomerase causes the sequence ("TTAGGG") of DNA to repeat. This is usually found in cancer cells. Okazaki fragments are located on the lagging strand of the DNA and are normally short. These strands are bound together by DNA ligase. DNA ligase I connects the hydroxyl ends of nucleotide to another nucleotide's phosphate end. DNA ligase II is found in non-dividing cells. DNA ligase III helps repair breaks and mutations in DNA. DNA ligase IV catalyzes the final step in DNA double strand repair. Cancer cells are cells that have mutations as we learned from Mr. Albright. These cells are not able to divide indefinitely. During cell cycle cancer caused the telomeres to become shorter. During gene therapy, cells are removed from the patient, then transformed with the gene that is needed by the patient. Then, they are returned to the patient. The only problem with this is cells have short lifespans. So, the patient needs fresh transplants every so often. Every time a cell completes mitosis, the telomeres of the cell shrink. Once these telomeres are gone, the cell will die. This is what causes cellular aging. Cells in younger people will reproduce through mitosis many more times the cells in older people. During cloning, the nucleus of a cell is copied. The telomeres that are copied tend to be shorter than the telomeres in the original cell. Also, the age of the donor cell had an affect on the size of the telomeres.

Pictures

Separated Full 2 Strands

Half

Key: Red squares- sugars Blue circles- phosphates Yellow end caps- telomeres Yellow "T"- Thymine Green "A"- Adenine Purple "G"- Guanine Blue "C"- Cytosine

Leaf Structures

Both the stoma and guard cells are of extreme importance because they allow gas exchange. Without the gas exchange, the plant wouldn’t be able to photosynthesize. In order for the plant to make energy it must have CO2 and H2O. Without the guard cells foreign objects could possibly pass into the leaf. This could cause the leaf to die. Thus without the stomata and guard cells, the leaves would not be able to survive. Light Intensity
We timed the cycle for 7:30 and these are our results.

Tries

Wavelength

% Maximum Produced (nm)

Light Intensity

ATP Produced

1

575

6%

100

5

2

575

4.8%

80

4

3

600

10%

100

8

4

575

3.6%

60

3

5

625

29%

100

22

6

575

7.2%

120

6

7

575

3.6%

60

3

8

650

42.5%

100

32

9

575

8.4%

140

7

10

550

7.5%

100

6

11

675

13.8%

100

11

12

575

9.6%

160

8

13

575

2.4%

40

2

14

650

51%

120

38

15

575

10.8%

180

9

16

575

1.2%

20

1

17

650

76.5%

180

56

18

650

85%

200

63

19

420

100%

200

75

Light intensity is the measure of wavelength emitted by a source in a particular direction. We can only see wavelengths that are between 400 and 700nm. After completing this experiment, we found that a combination of 420nm wavelength and 200lux of light intensity produced the most ATP. A wavelength of 420nm is considered to be violet light. Violet light is the shortest wavelength. The light is scattered the most efficiently in violet light. In wavelengths that have a higher amount of nm, the distance between waves is longer. Also, as the wavelengths gained in nm, the colors that we perceive light as change. Light changes from violet to blue to green to yellow to orange and finally to red. This connects to light intensity, because the shorter the wavelength, the higher the intensity of the light. The only problem with this combination of wavelength and intensity is that the plant would get burnt out very quickly.
This connects to the light reaction of photosynthesis because whenever you have too high of a light intensity, then the plant will not produce the maximum ATP that it can. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html

Team members:

AustinW

MasonS

DevanP

Our previous informationDNA Replication ModelLight Intensity

Leaf StructuresMitosis ReviewProtein SynthesisMonohybrid Crosses and ProbabilityMonohybrid Crosses and ProbabilityMonohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 1We flipped a penny 10 times. Here are the results:

Heads - 2/10

Tails - 8/10

We flipped a penny for 100 times. Here are the results:

Heads - 49/100

Tails - 51/100

This is close to the expected number of 50 for heads and tails for 100 flips because both numbers were 1 off.

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 2One head one tail - 50%

Both tails - 25%

44/100 Heads in Penny 1

56/100 Tails in Penny 1

54/100 Heads in Penny 2

45/100 Tails in Penny 2

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability Activity 3Parents Rr kids Rr

Red & yellow = 4 orange

Medaka Journal

First prediction of birth date - 13 days

Second prediction of birth date - 10 days

Heartbeat on day 4 - 83 beats per minute

Heartbeat on day 8 - 120 beats per minute

Heartbeat on day 9 - 190 beats per minute

Heartbeat on day 10 - 210 beats per minute

Protein SynthesisTranscription & Translation PicturesMitosis ReviewInterphaseInterphase is the normal functioning the cell before mitosis.

ProphaseProphase is the step of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense and the cell membrane disappears. The large yellow ovals are the nuclear membrane, the blue and orange "Xs" are the chromosomes, the turquoise squares are the spindle fibers.

MetaphaseDuring Metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate. The red squares are centrioles and the green lines are spindle fibers. Please disregard the large black square and the gray line.

Anaphase

Anaphase is the step of mitosis where the chromosomes begin to slit.

TelephaseDuring Telephase, membranes form around the nucleus and the chromosomes are pulled to the poles from the spindle fibers. The olive oval represents the whole cell, the red circles represent the nuclei, the green lines represent the spindle fibers, the black x's represent the chromosomes, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the small dots represent the separation between the nuclei's.

CytokinesisDuring cytokinesis, the cell membrane pinches in and the cytoplasm is divided between the cells to form two separate cells. The olive semicircles represent the 2 cells, the red circles represent the nuclei's, the black circles represent the centrioles, and the black x's represent the chromosomes.

DNA Replication ModelFirst, the DNA double Helix untwists. Then, the bases separate into left and right sides. The enzyme that completes this task is DNA helicase. Each side of “ladder” is a template for the new strands of DNA. Next, new bases and a phosphate sugar backbone attach to the left side template. This also occurs with the right side template. Finally, you have two identical DNA strands.

The telomeres will keep the ends of the chromosomes on the DNA strand from attaching to each other and from destruction. The telomerase causes the sequence ("TTAGGG") of DNA to repeat. This is usually found in cancer cells. Okazaki fragments are located on the lagging strand of the DNA and are normally short. These strands are bound together by DNA ligase. DNA ligase I connects the hydroxyl ends of nucleotide to another nucleotide's phosphate end. DNA ligase II is found in non-dividing cells. DNA ligase III helps repair breaks and mutations in DNA. DNA ligase IV catalyzes the final step in DNA double strand repair. Cancer cells are cells that have mutations as we learned from Mr. Albright. These cells are not able to divide indefinitely. During cell cycle cancer caused the telomeres to become shorter. During gene therapy, cells are removed from the patient, then transformed with the gene that is needed by the patient. Then, they are returned to the patient. The only problem with this is cells have short lifespans. So, the patient needs fresh transplants every so often. Every time a cell completes mitosis, the telomeres of the cell shrink. Once these telomeres are gone, the cell will die. This is what causes cellular aging. Cells in younger people will reproduce through mitosis many more times the cells in older people. During cloning, the nucleus of a cell is copied. The telomeres that are copied tend to be shorter than the telomeres in the original cell. Also, the age of the donor cell had an affect on the size of the telomeres.

PicturesSeparated Full 2 Strands

Half

:KeyRed squares- sugarsBlue circles- phosphatesYellow end caps- telomeresYellow "T"- ThymineGreen "A"- AdeninePurple "G"- GuanineBlue "C"- CytosineLeaf StructuresBoth the stoma and guard cells are of extreme importance because they allow gas exchange. Without the gas exchange, the plant wouldn’t be able to photosynthesize. In order for the plant to make energy it must have CO2 and H2O. Without the guard cells foreign objects could possibly pass into the leaf. This could cause the leaf to die. Thus without the stomata and guard cells, the leaves would not be able to survive.

Light IntensityWe timed the cycle for 7:30 and these are our results.

This connects to the light reaction of photosynthesis because whenever you have too high of a light intensity, then the plant will not produce the maximum ATP that it can. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html