Candy Dichotomous Key
Crayfish Dissection
Phenolphthalein Lab
Cell Script
Chat Box
Chart of Foods
Exercise for Health
Light intensity
Stomata Information
DNA Replication
Team Gel Electrophoresis Information
Monohybrid Crosses and Probability


Republican Picture Page
Republican Cell Project
Republican Enzyme Investigation

Crayfish Dissection Lab

Day 1
We received the crayfish and used the scalpel to cut off the carapace, to expose the gills. The gills on our crayfish looked like grayish onions. Then we carefully pulled off one individual leg, and another, and another, to see the gill that would be attached to the base of the leg. I believe that the crayfish was rotted, considering the grayed organs, and the fact that we had to pull off all the legs except for one to find a gill attached. Amy took pictures, Joe dictated, and Charlie dissected.

Day 2
We took more pictures and decided upon the animals and organs we were going to compare with the crayfish. We decided what we were going to do for our project and we chose to make a powerpoint.

Day 3
We began working on the powerpoint and getting all the facts straightened out about the crayfish and what we knew and did not know.

Day 4
We took all the information we didn't know about the crayfish and looked it up on the laptops. We also made sure we were positive about what we knew.

Day 5
We finished our powerpoint and put the finishing touches on it.

Diffusion and Cell Size Lab

In the diffusion and cell size lab we took phenolphthalein agar and cut three blocks measuring 1x1x1, 2x2x2, and 3x3x3. After we did this we calculated the surface area, volume, and the surface area to volume ratio. These are our results: Block Surface Area Volume Surface Area to Volume Ratio 1x1x1 6 cm 1 cm 6:1
2x2x2 24 cm 8 cm 3:1
3x3x3 54 cm 27 cm 2:1

After we calculated this we made a hypothesis as to which block would survive since nutrients must be able to come out of a cell in order for it survive. Our hypothesis was as follows:
We think that the 2x2x2 block will survive because it is just in the middle, so the waste will be able to get out of it but it won’t reabsorb it like we predict the little one will (1x1x1), but it will be able to go the whole way through, unlike the largest one (3x3x3).

We then we wrote a paragraph about which cell has the greatest surface area, the greatest volume, and the largest surface area to volume ratio, it is this: Not surprisingly, the 3x3x3 block has the greatest volume and surface area. As followed was the 2x2x2 block and the 1x1x1 was the smallest. The smallest block’s ratio showed that for every 6 cm of surface area, there is one centimeter of volume on the inside, this one was the largest ratio. So, the largest block may have a greater surface area, but the ratio was still 2 to 1, and in essence, the smallest.

Next we put our cubes into the beaker and covered them with the sodium hydroxide solution. We kept them in the beaker for ten minutes and then took them out and measured how far the purple solution (sodium hydroxide) seeped through the agar. Our measurements were…

How far the phenolphthalein agar seeped through after 10 minutes
.5 cm (1x1x1)
.6 cm (2x2x2)
.5 cm (3x3x3)

From this we concluded that the smallest cell (1x1x1) is the most efficient because it has the greatest ratio of surface area to volume and it also went through the whole way (since each side went in .5, they would all reach the middle). Proteins, Carbohydrates, oxygen, water, vitamins and minerals all enter the cell and, in the smallest cell, will go through and then the waste will come out. In conclusion, the smaller the cell, the more nutrients it would be able to absorb and then come out as a waste, which would help it live.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is so important about endoplasmic reticulum? Well, it serves specialized functions in a cell, like protein synthesis, sequestration of calcium, and the production of steroids just to name a few. There are two types are endoplasmic reticulum, which serves for different purposes. The rough endoplasmic reticulum holds ribosomes during protein synthesis. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum helps the metabolism process. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum also has the Glucose-6-phosphatase, which turns it into glucose. Endoplasmic reticulum is found in all eukaryotic cells, wich can be found in plants as well as animals. Please don't get rid of us!


The cell membrane is found in all cells. It is sometimes called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma. It has a large variety of biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids. The cell membrane is considered a semipermeable lipid bilayer. The cell membrane’s basic purpose is to keep all the cell fluids and pieces inside the cell and keep all of the things that can hurt it outside. There are tiny holes on the cell membrane to let things move in and out of it. Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up most of the membrane. To describe the organization of the phospholipids and proteins, scientists use what is known as the fluid mosaic model, which shows that the phospholipids are in a shape like a head and tail. The heads like water, the tails don’t. The tails bump into each other and the heads face outward of the membrane.

*note: The onions bubbled but weren't supposed to. We have no idea why they bubbled



Room Temp.









Ground Beef

Some foam.

Bubbles surround beef itself.

Numerous little bubbles.


Bubbles around meat

Bubbles surround liver without touching it.

bubbles around top of water.

Exercise for Health

QUESTION: Do two people exercising for the same amount of time for the same activity have different pH levels after that set amount of time even if they are different sexes?
Yes, we think that the two people will have different pH levels after the same set amount of time because the two people will have different physical activity levels and different body staminas, so their body will react differently. Even if they are different sexes.
Jump roping for 30 seconds and jogging in place for a minute.
Amy Harris and Joey Neal

Light Intensity

% Max

ATP in 5 Minutes

Light Intensity





































To get 100% Max ATP, you need 200 light intensity and 425 wavelength as shown below:

The greater the light intensity (energy) the shorter the wavelength.
The more energy is used to reflect the light, the lighter the color. If there's not as much light reflected, the darker the color will appear.
The best conditions for making the maximum ATP are 200 Light Intensity, and between 425 and 650 wavelength.




Stomatas are the pores found under the leaves on plants, found in epidermal tissue. They are formed by guard cells. Air passes through these easily in order for photosynthesis to occur.

Guard cells contain chloroplasts, and those are the organelles that conduct photosynthesis, so that is why they are so necessary for this specific process. Guard cells occure in pairs, creating an opening between them called stomatas, so in other words, they control how much gas exchange and water loss can happen in plants. The guard cells can change shape; however, that can make the stomata disappear. During the summer, when the weather is warm, a plant is in danger of losing a lot of water, so the guard cells close causing less water to be evaporated from the leave. Without guard cells, photosynthesis will not be able to occur as properly as it should.

Courtesy of http://www.mna.hkr.se/~ene02p7/twig.htm

Courtesy of http://www.mna.hkr.se/~ene02p7/twig.htm

DNA Replication

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Telomeres are at the end of all chromosomes, they are the long stretches before and after the centromere. Telomeres are extremely important to cell's because they make sure that chromosome do not attatch to each other. The chromosomes in eukaryotic cells have two ends; however, not all organisms have a two ended chromosome. The E. coli bacteria, which is a closed circle, has no ends so therefore, cannot have eukaryotic cells. At each mitosis, human telomeres have been guessed to lose 100 base pairs from their telomeric DNA. Telomeres are supposed to get smaller with each mitosis so the cells eventually die.

An okazaki fragment is a strand of DNA polymerase that begins the synthenization process when the replication forks are opened correctly; however, the okazaki fragment is working in the oposite direction of the replication forks. Newly made DNA starts as okazaki fragments that the replication fork got to and turned into DNA. This process continues until the end of the chromosome is close, then there is not enough template to keep making the okazaki fragments; therefore, the ends of each newly created strand can't be turned into DNA and a daughter chromosome will have a shorter telomere.

The DNA ligase is what holds the okazaki fragments together so they do not break apart.

Telomerase is the enzyme that adds the telomere repeat sequence to the ends of DNA strands. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein with a protein component that causes the catalytic action to occur. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that syntheses DNA from an RNA template. This is found mostly in the cells of germline (like embryonic stem cells), one celled eukaryotes, some adult stem cells, and cancer cells. Most cancers form from somatic cells; however, unlike normal cells cancer cells can divide infinately.

Cancer cells may possibly be immortal and live forever. Cancer cells in a culture produce telomerase and show no contact inhibition like normal cells do. When the lid of the culture is placed on the cells continue to divide and pile into mounds, these cells can normally grow on a simpler culture medium. Cancer cells most of the time have abnormal karyotype with either abnormal numbers of chromosomes or chromosomes with an abnormal structure like translocations, deletions, duplications, or inversions. Most cancer cells have regained their ability to synthesize telomerase through the entire cell to prevent their telomeres from shortening more.

When searching for Transplanted cells on Google, you'll find numerous legitimate news sources claiming that a cell transplant resulted in some sort of medical miracle. Cell transplants are done for noncancerous and cancerous events. The cells can come from either your own body or from a donor. Although a potentially beneficial operation, cell transplants do carry high risks, such as cataracts, organ damage, and even death.

Cloning is the process of creating copies of DNA fragments, cells, or organisms. It also refers to the reproduction of asexual creatures. Reproductive cloning (example- Dolly the Sheep) is a relatively new thing and has brought on much controversy on what exactly science's "moral" boundaries are, and if it is more good than bad, or vice versa.

The steady shrinking of telomeres results in a finite lifespan of cells. Information like this has been found and put to the test by scientists to see if there is a way to slow aging. When a source to something supposedly negative is found, the natural reaction is to see if there is a way to put an end to it there.







Protein Synthesis:



Krista Martino

Team Gel Electrophoresis Information

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability.


Activity 1:

We flipped a penny ten times, coming up with exactly 5 heads and 5 tails. This matches exactly the 50 percent probability.

We then flipped the coin 100 times, coming up with 52 heads and 48 tails. This is very close to being 50-50.

Activity 2:

What is the chance that you will get both heads? A head and a tail? Both tails?
There is a 1 in 4 chance that you would get any of these combinations, but since we are not going by the first or second penny, there is a one in three chance because it could end up being Heads first and then Tails, but it won't matter since they are both the same. Therefore, the probability of Heads and Tails combined is higher than just Tails and Tails or Heads and Heads. Then final probability would be:

H&T - 50%
T&T - 25%
H&H - 25%

Toss your two pennies in your group 100 times. What are the percent of the outcomes? What should the percent of the outcomes be?
Heads and tails - 45 %
Tails and Tails - 27 %
Heads and Heads - 28 %
The percent of the outcomes should mostly be 50% for Heads and Tails, 25% for Tails and Tails as well as 25% for Heads and Heads. They are remotely close to the right percentages.

Activity 3:

What we already know:
What we still need to know:
Questions we have:
Answers to our questions:
In the yellow/orange egg, there are
2 red and 2 orange.
In the red egg, there are 4 red starbursts.
Each egg represents a set of parents.
What does the red and orange represent and
why are there less orange?
Why are there only two orange and in total 6 red?
What does the red and orange represent and why are they in their corresponding eggs?

R = red
r = yellow

one chromosome came from mom and the other came from dad.
Red starburst = RR
rr = yellow
Rr = orange

Color of egg = red and has 4 red starbursts

First R
Parent R

Second R
Parent R
This would mean that there is an 100% chance that the offspring will be red.

Color of egg = Orange and red = 2 red and 2 orange
RR = red
Rr = yellow/red

First R
Parent R

Second R
Parent r
So there is a 50% change that the two eggs will have an offspring of RR equaling red. And there is a 50% chance that the offspring will be yellow/red