BrodiL., KevinS., ZakD., IanW., LukeB....We are the Pinheads.
Pinheads.jpg



Anchors:
Monohybrid Crosses and Probability
Protein Synthesis
Light Intensity Lab
Exercise For Life Lab

Cell Lab
Cray fish


Monohybrid Crosses and Probability

ONE AT A TIME

Heads
Tails
43

57


TWO AT A TIME

Both
Both Heads
Both Tails
44
30
26
We had red and orange egg that had two red and two orange starbursts. Our other egg was all yellow with all yellow starbursts.

This punnant square represents the egg that was all yellow and there was a 100% that the starbursts were going to be yellow because both parents were yellow.

r
r
r
rr
rr
r
rr
rr
This punnant square represents the egg that had both red and orange parts. There was then a 50% that one of the starbursts was going to be red or yellow.

R
r
R
RR
Rr
R
RR
Rr

What we know
what we still need to know
Questions that we still have
Answers to our questions
Each half of the egg is one parent. In most cases there are colors of each parent but in some there are completely different colors. Orange is a combination of red and yellow which would be Rr because red is represented with a R. Yellow is represented with a r. So with our egg that is all yellow the parents would be represented with two r's. The egg with orange and red is represented with the red parent being R and orange would be Rr.
How different colors come from the eggs.
Can there be more than two colors per egg.


The chances of getting one of each is 33.3%. The percentage of the outcomes is 44% for one of each, 30% of both heads, and 26% of both tails.


Protein Synthesis
Dna_007.pngDNA_TranscriptionAfter.png

Key-
Red and Blue lines- Sugar Phosphate Backbones
Light Purple- Adenine
Yellow- Thymine
Aqua- Cytosine
Green- Guanine
Purple Dots- Sugar
Green Dots- Phosphate

In the second model the yellow bars which are Thymine have been replaced by orange bars which are U's.


Electrophoresis

In our test we believe that suspect 2 was at the scene of the crime because suspect 2's DNA that was cut with enzyme 2 matched with the DNA at the crime scene that was cut with enzyme 2.

Gelelectrophoresis.jpg

Paternity Test-

We believed that he is the father because the child/father dna matched up with the child's dna. Also the mother dna matched up with both the father/child and the child.


Picture_1.png<---THIS IS PROPHASE
During prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes and the cell gets ready for the rest of this process.
Zaaaaaa.png
During metaphase, the centrosomes are at the opposite poles and the chromosomes are at their most tightly coiled part. They are at then arranged on a plane in the middle of the cell called the metaphase plate.
zaksanaphasethinggey.png
The paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite ends of the cell.
ZBBBBBB.png
In telophase the chromosomes gather at the poles in pairs and begin to uncoil. A nuclear envelope forms around the sets of chromosomes, the spindles disappear, and then the nucleolus reforms.
zakscytokenesisthing.png
During cytokenesis in an animal the membrane is pinched between the two what will become the two daughter cells. In a plant cell during cytokenesis a cell plate is synthesized between the daughter cells that will then seperate them into the two daughter cells.

Dna_10349.pngdna_2.png
Key-
Red and Blue lines- Sugar Phosphate Backbones
Light Purple- Adenine
Yellow- Thymine
Aqua- Cytosine
Green- Guanine
Purple Dots- Sugar
Green Dots- Phosphate

DNA Replication


Telomeresarea of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes that protect the chromosome from destruction


Okazaki Fragments – relatively short fragment of DNA created on the strand during replication

DNA Ligase – stitches the okazaki fragments together to help create a whole DNA strand

Telomerase – enzyme that adds certain repeated DNA sequences to the end of DNA strands in the same region as the telomeres.

Cancer – disease where cells show the trait of uncontrolled growth, invasion, and metastasis

Transplanted Cells – cells from one organism that are taken and put into another organism for restoration of damaged cells

Cloning – using cells or DNA fragments to make an identical copy of cells or an entire organism

Aging – any change in an organism over time; referring to physical, psychological, or social change to that organism.

How it all ties together:
Telomeres protect the DNA, so this means that telomeres help the DNA through normal the cell cycle, transplants, and cloning. Okazaki fragments couldn’t work with out DNA ligase. Cancer is caused by mutations and cell mutations start with the DNA, so if the Okazaki and the telomeres mess up cancer could be the result. Last, aging is caused by shorting of telomeres.





Stomata Images

Stomata.jpgStomata2.jpg
Guard cells help to regulate transportation by opening and closing the stomata. A guard cell can loose water and be forced closed when the co2 levels in the air decline and photosynthesis decreases. A guard cell can become swollen if there is a big accumulation of potassium ions, which forces the stoma to stay open. Materials that enter and leave the stoma are different gases. Carbon Dioxide cannot enter the leaf through the waxy layer called the cuticle, but instead through the stoma of the leaf.
Light Intensity Lab

LIGHT INTENSITY LAB
Light Intensity
Wave Length
% Maximum ATP
ATP made in 5 min.
20
400
6.5
3
20
425
10
5
20
450
1.5
1
20
475
0.8
1
20
500
0.8
1
20
525
1
1
20
550
1.5
1
20
575
1.2
1
20
600
2
1
20
625
5.8
3
20
650
8.5
4
20
675
2.8
1
20
700
0.5
1
20
725
0.4
1
20
750
0.3
1
40
400
13
7
40
425
20
10
40
450
3
2
40
475
1.5
1
40
500
1.5
1
40
525
2
1
40
550
3
2
40
575
2.4
1
40
600
4
2
40
625
11.6
6
40
650
17
8
40
675
5.5
3
40
700
1
1
40
725
0.8
1
40
750
0.6
1
80
400
26
13
80
425
40
20
80
450
6
3
80
475
3
2
80
500
3
2
80
525
4
2
80
550
6
3
80
575
4.8
2
80
600
8
4
80
625
23.2
12
80
650
34
17
80
675
11
6
80
700
2
1
80
725
1.8
1
80
750
1.2
1
160
400
2.4
1
160
425
3.2
2
160
450
4
2
160
475
22
11
160
500
68
34
160
525
46.4
23
160
550
16
8
160
575
9.6
5
160
600
12
6
160
625
8
4
160
650
6
3
160
675
6
3
160
700
12
6
160
725
80
40
160
750
52
26



Plant Germination
Day 1- 2 of the seeds have begun germination. Both are about half of a centimeter.


Exercise For Life Lab
Timer: Brodi
Exercisers: Ian and Zak
Recorders: Kevin and Luke
Exercises performed on Wed April 7






Cell Size Lab




Progress Report: Crayfish Dissection
On the first day that we got our crayfish, we began dissecting it. This took about all of the period. During the dissection part of our group began researching the various parts of the crayfish that we were given. For homework we were assigned different animals to research to compare with the crayfish.

On the second day we continued and finished dissecting our crayfish. We continued to gather information and we started to compile our information into a power point presentation. For homework we researched more on the anatomy of the different animals and the crayfish.

By the third day we were still putting the information and the pictures of crayfish together and we put all of the different animal information together too
.