Christine

Heather

Lauren

Misty


Welcome to Heather and Lauren's wiki page!

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability
Mitosis on Scratch
Light Intensity Lab
Stomata Information
The Game Plan
Check out Heather and Lauren's newsletter here!
Crayfish
Cellpart Script
Chart
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[#Monohybrid Crosses and Probability]
Monohybrid Crosses and Probability
H-heads
h-tails

Activity 1:Tossing one penny
There is a 50% chance that the penny will turn up heads.

10 times;
6-heads
4-tails

If the penny is tossed 100 times, it will turn up heads 50 times. There is a 50% probability of this.

100 times;
52-heads
48-tails


Activity 2:Tossing two pennies
100 times;
22-HH
48-Hh
30-hh

The results were two numbers off of the expected number of heads and tails.
(52: 48 instead of 50: 50)

Activity 3:Monohybrid cross
What we already know:
What we still need to know:
Questions we have:
Answers to our questions:
Each half of the egg represents a parent.
What are the dominant traits?
How are the offspring different when the parents are the same?

The starbursts inside are the offspring.
What do the colors mean?
How can we tell which traits are dominant?
Red is the dominant trait.
There are four offspring.



The offspring share the traits of the parents.



first parent

r
r
R
Rr
Rr
r
rr
rr
second parent

first parent

r
r
r
rr
rr
r
rr
rr
second parent


[#Mitosis on Scratch]
Mitosis on Scratch
Interphase-Christine
Prophase-Misty
Metaphase-Ivy
Anaphase-Amy
Telophase-Heather
Cytokinesis-Lauren

metaphase_by_ivy.jpg

DNA Replication Models (Ivy, Amy, Lauren, Heather, Christine, Misty)
Copy_of_DNA_replication.jpg
Ivy-
DNA replication is the copying a double-stranded DNA molecule to create two double-stranded molecules. Both strands have the exact genetic information, both can serve as templates for the opposite strand reproduction. Cells need to be replicated to be sure there are enough chromosomes for the original cell as well as the new cell.

Amy-
Replication occurs before Meiosis I only.DNA replication is the process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule to form two double-stranded molecules. In order for cell division to occur, replication of DNA must happen. DNA replication begins with the unzipping of the parent molecule as the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs are broken.

Misty-
DNA Replication is the process of coping a double stranded DNA molecule to make another double stranded DNA molecule. This process happends in the Meiosis I phase.

Christine-
1. Cancer:
Cancer cells form from stomatic cells. i found out that 13% of all deaths occur due to cancer. Cancer can also affect humans, animals, and plants. Cancers can form because of mutations in genetic material of the transformed cells. Some of these abnormalities also can occur because of carcinogens.

2. Transplanted cells:
When you infuse new and healty stem cells into your body that is called transplanted cells. This would be necessary to help your body make healthy white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells. This would lower your risk of getting life-threatening infections. Stem cell transplants also help people with cancerous and non cancerous diseases.

Cloning:
when you make an exact replica of something like DNA cells, fragments, or organisms is called cloning.. When you clone a DNA fragment you need to go through four steps. the four steps are fragmentation, ligation, transfection, and screening/selection. When you clone a cell you double it and keep doubling it.

Aging:
A change in an organism over a period of time is called aging. This change can be physical, mental, or social. The genetic material that makes up a human can damage over time.

Heather-
1. Telomeres – Telomeres are very important to the life of a cell. They are the long stretches at the ends of the chromosomes that keep the chromosomes separated so that they don’t become attached to each other.

2. Okazaki fragments – The Okazaki fragment is the section of the complementary strand which is where DNA polymerase begins after the replication fork opens. This is how newly-synthesized DNA begins.

3. DNA ligase – After DNA begins to synthesize, DNA ligase stitches the Okazaki fragments together.

4. Telomerase – The enzyme that adds telomere repeat sequences to the 3’ end of DNA strands is called telomerase. After lengthening the telomerase, DNA polymerase is able to complete the synthesis of the opposite strand. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein. It is generally found only in the cells of a germline, unicellular eukaryotes, “adult” stem cells, and cancer cells.

[#Light Intensity Lab]

Light Intensity Lab

Lauren and Heather

% Maximum ATP
  1. of ATP
Light Intensity
Wavelength
0
0
0
575
12
6
200
575
100
50
200
425
39
20
120
400

I determined the way to create the maximum number of ATP. 100% of ATP is created when the light intensity is set at 200 and the wavelength is set at 425. During this simulation, H+ and ½ O2 molecules passed through the chloroplast. The number of ATP created in 5 minutes at these settings was 50.

The electrons are passed from one ADP to the next. After exiting the chloroplast, the electron will join with a NADP+ and create a NADPH.

100%_ATP.png20_ATP.png0_light_intensity.png
200_light_intensity.png
Light Intensity 575

[#Stomata Information]

Stomata Information (Ivy, Amy, Lauren, Misty, Heather, and Christine)

ivy-The guard cells regulate opening and closing of the stomata. The stomata transfers the CO2, light and water from the surrounding atmosphere in the plant.
Lauren- The stoma is found on the underside of the plant leaf and is used for gas exchange. Guard cells, responsible for regulating the size of the opening, form this pore. Air containing carbon dioxide, which is used for photosynthesis and respiration, enter the plant through these openings. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis exit through these same openings and water vapor is also released into the atmosphere through these pores.

Leaf_1.png
Leaf_1.png
LEAF_3.png
LEAF_3.png
-- Amy



Germinating Seeds (Lauren, Heather, and Misty)


For this lab, we were to choose a color of cellophane wrap (we chose pink) and use it to cover a glass baby food jar. We placed 6 seeds over a damp paper towel inside the jar and were to measure the growth after one week to see how light affects the rate of germination.

Only one of our seeds had grown after the week was up. The length of that seed was 45mm. After comparing that seed's growth with the other five's, our average growth was 7.5.





The Game Plan


We are going to test walking Vs. leeping. Lauren will be our designated leeper. Heather will be our designated walker. Both Heather and Lauren will exercise for 3min. on a flat surface. Ivy will be the timer for Lauren and Christine will be the timer for Heather. Amy and Misty will be in charge of the bromothymol blue solution. Our hypothesis is that leeping is more aerobic than walking.

The Battle Between the Frog and the Slough

Our hypothesis was that leeping would require a greater amount of energy than walking. Leeping is more brisk than just plain walking. Walking is more of a relaxed and laid-back form of energy than leeping.


For this experiment, we tested two different activities to see which used the most energy. The activities we tested were leaping and walking. Lauren was our designated leaper, and Heather was our designated walker. Both Heather and Lauren exercised for 2minutes on a flat surface and were also in charge of the bromothymol solution. Misty timed Lauren and Heather during their exercising, and also took photos of this experiment. Before exercising, 50 ml of bromothymol blue was placed into 2 beakers along with a straw. The PH was measured for the solution. Lauren and Heather were to blow into the straws for 60 seconds. Then another Ph reading was taken for the solution.

Lauren
First-
starting pH 9.10
turned green after 40 sec.
final pH 6.45
Second-
starting pH 9.45
turned green after 28 sec.
final pH 6.40

Heather
First-
starting pH 10.13
turned green after 44 sec.
final pH 6.90
Second-
starting pH 9.23
turned green after 33 sec.
final pH 6.72


The pH went down after each time. The starting one for the first round was higher than the final. The pH took less time to turn green the second time.

How much is enough?
The National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australians released in 1999, which is supported by the Heart Foundation, recommend that at least 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity be accumulated on most, if not all, days of the week to obtain a health benefit for humans.
Examples of moderate physical activities include swimming, doubles tennis, cycling or brisk walking.
Most dogs need to be walked at least once each day, though some breeds – particularly larger or more active types - may require more.
The breed of dog you have, as well as its level of fitness, will also determine how long and how vigorous your walk should be.
You walk at least 5 days a week.
You walk at a brisk pace for your fitness level.
Very important - any walking is better than none - so if you are very unfit and/or very overweight or both then check with your doctor and start walking at an appropriate level. Aim to build up gradually and start with a gentle stroll.
Ideally the time taken for your walk should be least 30 minutes (but you can divide this into 2 periods of 15 minutes or even 3 periods of 10 minutes if it suits you).
Walking is an aerobic exercise

* Application to life
Walking is a basic essential of life. Most people walk mostly everywhere they go.



==Crayfish Dissection==

Monday January 21, Heather and Christine dissected the crayfish while Lauren took photographs of the external and internal structures.
January 21-25 we finished dissecting our crayfish
Monday January 28 Heather wrote a paragraph about what make a crayfish a crustacean.
Tuesday January 29 Lauren labeled all of our crayfish pictures.
Wednesday January 30 Christine found some information about how the internal organs of a crayfish relate to the internal organs of other organisms.
Saturday February 2 Lauren found the functions of all of the crayfish's structures.
Sunday February 3 Christine left for Vietnam.
Monday February 4 Heather finished finding Christine's information.
Tuesday February 5 Lauren found how the Structure relate to their functions.
Wednesday February 6 Lauren and Heather put all our information into a keynote presentation for your viewing pleasure.

ENJOY!

Crayfish Dissection:


Cell part script

Vacuoles play a very import role in keeping a cell alive. Vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs found in the cytoplasm of most plant and some animal cells but are larger in plant cells. Vacuoles in plant cells are much larger that animal cells because they store water which supports the plant. Vacuoles can store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. Vacuoles hold large amounts of food, water, and also some wastes, they hold onto things that a cell might need, just like a backpack.
They aid in the destruction of invading bacteria. If the bacteria are not gotten rid of, the cell is likely to die. Vacuoles help to export any unwanted substances from the cell.
The structure is simple. There is a membrane that surrounds a mass of fluid. That fluid contains nutrients or wastes. Because they play a major role in helping keep cells safe from materials that may be harmful, they are very important.







ivy this is the chart for our page its all weird though...im not for sure how to make it normal....-Lauren
Lauren, Ivy, Heather, Christine, and Amy


|Food Tested| |Benedict's test| |Iodine Test| |Biuret Test| |Sudan IV Test| |Observations| |This Food Contains...| |
|Tuna| |Negative| |Negative| |Positive| |Positive| |Easily Condensed| |Proteins, Fats, and Oils| |
|Bananas| |Positive| |Negative| |Negative| |Negative| |Smelly| |Simple Sugars| |
|Kidney Bean| |Negative| |Positive| |Positive| |Positive| |Hard to mash, smelly| |Starch Proteins, fat, and oil| |
|Avacado| |Negative| |negative| |Negative| |Postive| |Smelled like rotting pumpkin, easy to mash| |Fat and Oil| |
|Grapes| |Positive| |Negative| |Negative| |Positive| |Hard to mash, stinky| |Fats, oils, simple sugars|