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Monohybrid Crosses and Probability

Activity One:

If a penny is tossed 100 times, it should turn up heads 50 times.
The possible outcomes are heads or tails.
You find this by flipping the coin.
The probability is 1:2.
We got heads 44 times and tails 56 times.
It is six off each way. Pretty darn close.

Activity Two:

The possible out comes are two heads, a head and a tail, and two tails.
The chance that you will get both heads is 25%. The chance that you will get one head and one tail is 50%. The chance that you will get both tails is 25%.
The percent of the out comes is 40% heads and 60% tails.
The percent of the outcomes should be 50 - 50.

Activity Three:

What we know
What we still need to know
Questions we have
Answers to our questions
We know that each side of the egg represents a parent.

How did red and yellow come up when both parents were orange.
Both parents were carriers for the red and yellow genes.

The parents of the all RED egg were RR. The children of this egg were also RR.
Parent one is RR. Parent two is RR

The parents of the all ORANGE egg are Rr. The children are RR, Rr, Rr, rr.
Parent one is Rr. Parent two is Rr.

This is the same strand of DNA that was used in DNA Replication.
This picture shows transcription, with the original DNA strand being split and the mRNA strand attaching to one side of the DNA. The one side of the original DNA strand is then used as a template by RNA polymerase. The mRNA copies DNA and takes it to the ribosome for transcription.
This picture shows codons. Codons are the parts that make up the new proteins. Depending on the type of codon they also start and stop protein construction.

This is a picture of translation. During translation the mRNA is decoded by the tRNA in order to form new amino acid chains.

This is the picture of the final step in protein synthesis with the polypeptide attached to the tRNA.

Crime Scene Electrophoresis:

Suspect 2 is the guilty suspect. The DNA from both suspects matched the DNA taken from the crime scene when these DNA were cut with restriction enzyme 1. However, when all of the DNA was cut with restriction enzyme 2, the crime scene DNA matched the DNA from suspect 2.




During this phase the cell prepares to undergo mitosis.
-G1 is when the cell does most of it's growing.
-S is when DNA and chromosomes replicate.
-G2 is when the cell starts to grow rapidly to prepare for mitosis, and the cell has a well defined nucleus.
The prophase begins with the chromosomes becoming visible and the centrioles separating. The centrioles form spindle poles that helps separate chromosomes, and the chromosomes join to the spindle, becoming more tightly coiled.
Meataphase is when the chromosomes align in the center of the cell on the equatorial plate before they split into two new daughter cells.
Anaphase is the third phase of mitosis. During anaphase, the centromeres that join the sister chromatids split allowing the chromatids to separate and become individual chromosomes. The chromosomes then separate into two groups near the poles of the spindle. Anaphase ends when the chromosomes stop moving.
In Telophase the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. in this phase, the nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes and the spindle fibers disappear.
Cytokinesis is the very last phase of mitosis. In animal cells, the cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts. In plant cells, the cell wall pinches the cell in, and a cell plate gradually develops into a separating membrane that splits the cell.





Telomerase: A telomerase is an enzyme that causes telomeres to lengthen. It is generally found in cells of the germline, unicellurar eukaryotes, and cancer cells. It is actice chiefly in tumors and reproductive cells. A telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein. It provides the catalytic action from it's protein component. The telomerase allows the DNA polymrease to complete the synthesis of the "incomplete ends" of the opposite strand. It may account for the immortality of cancer cells. Telomerases can add telomeres to the ends of the chromosomes after they divide. -Danielle
Cloning: Cloning is the process of making an identical copy of something. It refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments, cells, or organisms. It also refers to when bacteria, insects, or plants reproduce asexually. Clone comes from the greek word that means twig or branch. this refers to the process in which a new plant can be created from a twig. Molecular cloning is the procedure in which a defined DNA sequence is isolated and multiple copies are obtained. Cellular cloning- cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. Organism cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. Reproductive cloning takes the nucleus from a donor cell and implants it into an egg cell that has no nucleus. Horticultural cloning is all decendants of a single plant. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing or previously existing human.-Tyler
Telomeres: Telomeres are long stretches at the ends of the chromosomes. Each eukaryotic chromosome consists of a single molecule of DNA. Telomeres keep the ends of the various chromosomes in the cell from accidentally becoming attached to each other. As telomeres shrink they effect the cells and cause them to "age". Dolly, the cloned sheep, had shortened telomeres when she was born and lived a relatively short life because of it. She had a few offspring and was eventually euthanased. Euthanasia is also known as mercy killing, which is an act of putting to death painlessly to withhold suffering from an animal with an incurable, painful disease or condition. -Tyler
Cancer: Most cancers appear from stomatic cells. One feature that makes it able to distinguish cancer cells from stomatic cells is that a cancer cell can divide indefinately unlide stomatic cells. Most cancer cells have regained the ability to synthesize high levels of telomerase throughout the cell cycle, and thus are able to prevent further shortening of their telomeres.
Agents that prevent the expression of the gene for telomerase, or prevent the action of the enxyme will provide a new class of weapons in the fight against cancer - Maddison
DNA ligase:
DNA ligase 1 links Okazaki fragments during DNA replication.
DNA ligase 2 is found in non-dividing cells.
DNA ligase 3 complexes with a DNA repair protein to aid in sealing base mutations and recombinant fragments.
DNA ligase 4 complexes with another DNA repair protein. It catalyzes the final step in the DNA double-strand break repair. -Corban
Transplanted Cells:
One method to gene therapy (putting genes into cells to treat a hereditary disease) includes removing cells from the patient, transforming the cells with the gene for the absent, needed product, and return the cells to the patient. The only fall of this method is that cells are mortal, so they die out after the process is used over and over. If cells were transformed with therapeutic genes and active telomerase genes, they would have an unlimited life span.
Cancer cells could regain the ability to make telomerase, and that would cause cells transformed with an active telomerase gene to become cancerous. However, cells do not grow into tumors and monitor what goes into the cell closely, unlike cancer cells.-Corban
Okazaki fragments:
Okazaki fragments are short fragments of DNA that are created on the laging strand during DNA replication. Before DNA can wind pieces need to be stiched together. Okazaki fragments are stiched together by DNA ligase, and work in the opposite direction as the other parts. Okazaki fragments can easily be defined as new sides of the ladder that connect to the backbone that form the other half of the ladder.-Parris
As you become older the process of cell division becomes slower creating aging. Telomeres start to shorten and once the telomeres reach a certian lenghth they can no longer divide causing the structure and function to begin to fail. Because everyone and every living thing on earth has a limited life span on cells, the cells will stop reproducung causing you to age.-Parris

Leaf Structures5lettucecellctpdm.jpg

The stomata and guard cells are very important to a plant's health. Stomata are small, pore-like openings on the undersides of leaves that are used for gas exchange in the plant. The guard cells are cells that form the stomata and regulate the opening and closing of the stomata. Both structures are essential to each other because the stomata would not be able to open and close without the guard cells, and the guard cells would not have a function if the stomata didn't exist. These two structures together allow carbon dioxide into the leaves and release water and oxygen from the leaves. Also, the guard cells and stomata keep harmful materials from entering the leaves. In addition, both structures are vital to the plant's survival and the process of photosynthesis. Without guard cells or stomata, carbon dioxide would not have a passageway into the leaves. This would leave the plant without carbon dioxide, therefore stopping the process by which the plant makes its own food, photosynthesis. Without photosynthesis, the plant wouldn't have a way to make energy and over time would die. Essentially, the stomata and guard cells are crucial for the process of photosynthesis and the plant's survival.


Light Intensity

Maddison, Parris, and Corban each tested different levels of wavelength and light intensity on the simulator to find the levels at which the maximum ATP was produced. Danielle recorded the results of our tests on the table below. We then each researched different topics pertaining to light intensity, wavelength, energy, and the color of light and related them to the light reaction of photosynthesis.

Maximal ATP in percent
ATP after five minutes
Light intensity
Wave length
32 ATP
50 ATP
42 ATP

Screenshots Of Experiment
Wavelength and Energy: The greater the energy, the shorter (smaller) the wavelength will be. The less energy, the longer the wavelength will be. *Short wavelengths are more energetic than long ones.

Wavelength and Color: Visible light ranges from 400nm to 700nm, with 400 being violet and 700 being red.
Violet = 400-430 nm
Blue = 430-480 nm
Cyan = 480-520 nm
Green = 520-570 nm
Yellow = 570-600 nm
Orange = 600-630 nm
Red = 630-700 nm
Red has the longest wavelength in the visible spectrum, and violet has the shortest wavelength. Since violet has the short wavelength, it is more energetic than red, which is at the other end of the spectrum. At the same time, blue is more energetic than orange, and green is slightly more energetic than yellow. So it can be assumed that the more energetic a color is, the shorter that color’s wavelength is. Also, colors such as red, orange, and yellow are the colors with longer wavelength, and violet, blue, and green are the colors with shorter wavelengths.

From this research, a few things can be applied to the light reaction of photosynthesis. First, the color of the light that is being absorbed by the chlorophyll depends on the rate of the light reaction. If a color such as red is being absorbed, the reaction will be slower because red gives of less energy because its wavelength is longer, therefore giving the chlorophyll less energy to receive and slowing down the reaction. Second, a color such as blue, green, or violet will cause the light reaction to go faster because these colors give off more energy, speeding up the light reaction.


Photosynthesis is light dependet. Therefore, at a low light intensity, plants will not grow as much. This is the reason that plants grow much more outside, rather than inside. As the light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis increases. This happens until a point is reached where the rate begins to level off. At a low light intensity photosynthesis slows down because only a small amount of ATP and NDPH is created by the light dependent reactions.


Exercise For Health

The Voice Thread:

Sources for the articles:

The Questions:
Male vs. Female in anaerobic activity:
How is the carbon dioxide release of males compare to the carbon dioxide release of females after anaerobic exercise?
Parris: Female Exerciser
Corban: Male Exerciser
Maddie: PH timer
Danielle: Sprinter TImer
Tyler: PH timer

THE NUCLEUS: Why it should survive

Tyler, Corban, and Danielle:
The nucleus is very important. SO important that it shouldn’t be voted off the island. ☺
The nucleus is the brain of the eukaryotic cell. It functions as the “control center” of the cell, directing the activities that take place in the cell which enable the cell to survive. It is only present in eukaryotic cells, and there is only one nucleus in each cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane; called the nuclear envelope, which is similar to the cell membrane that surrounds the entire cell. The nucleus is surrounded by the cytoplasm inside the cell.
The nucleus houses the DNA, which stores genetic information for a cell. The DNA contains instructions for the construction of the cell’s proteins and for reproduction.
The nucleus is made of three main parts: the nucleolus, the nuclear envelope, and chromatin. The nucleus contains ribosomes, RNA, DNA, and proteins. The nucleus has many important roles, these include:
1. Stores genes
2. Organizes genes to allow cell division
3. Organize DNA
4. Serves as information processing center and administrative center
5. Coordinates the cell’s growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and cell division
Overall, the nucleus is the most important part of the cell and could not be survived without. Therefore, it should not be done away with.


Crayfish Internal Organ Comparison

Crayfish Cardiac Stomach

- there are two stomachs inside the crayfish.
- The cardiac stomach is usually found closer to the head then the pyloric stomach
- The cardiac stomach has little teeth in it that grind up the food

Elephant Stomach – the stomach mainly stores food and does not digest much food

Polar Bear Stomach – the stomach can hold up to 150 pounds; digests mainly seals

Butterfly Stomach – rather than a stomach, a butterfly has a similar organ called the crop that stores food until it is needed by the butterfly

Snake Stomach – the stomach is very strong and elastic; stomach contains powerful digestive juices to digest prey eaten whole

Crayfish Lungs

Crayfish Lungs- crayfish use gills to perform respiration. The gills are located in the chest cavity (inside the exoskeleton). Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and water across the gill surface.

Elephant lungs- attached directly to the walls of the chest cavity so the inflation of the lungs is solely dependent on the availability of chest movement. If the chest is restricted from movement, then the elephant will suffocate.

Eagle Lungs- air passes twice through the eagle’s lungs during each breath, which means that it breathes at twice the rate of other mammals. Eagles are very attune to their breathing and do not go to altitudes that would interfere with their breathing patterns.

Snake Lungs- snakes have one very large right lung that extends over 1/3 of its body. The left lung is either very small or sometimes not there at all. During feeding when the snakes mouth is blocked, it extends a muscular extension of the windpipe beneath its prey to allow the snake to breathe.

Butterfly Lungs- Air goes directly into a butterfly’s body tissues through tiny air tubes called trachea. Air enters and leaves these tubes through small holes called spiracles on the outside of the abdomen and thorax.

Crayfish Heart

Crayfish Heart- In crayfish, the heart is located under the dorsal caraspace of the thorax, suspended in the pericardial cavity by several ligaments. The heart beat rhythm is determined by simple nueral circuit in the heart called cardiac ganglion.

Elephant Heart- The heart of an elephant weighs between forty and sixty pounds and beats thirty times per minute. The unique thing about the elephant circulatory system is that the ventricles are separated at thir apex and veins are in pairs. Veins have thick walls and can achieve lengths up to 350 cm. The red blood cell count is much lower in elephants.

Snake Heart- A snakes heart can side 1 to 1 ½ times its length from its normal position, to allow the passage of swalloed prey. This is because of the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. It has three chambers and effectively separates blood from arteries and veins. The right and left chambers receive blood from the lungs and recirculate it back into the blood stream through the third chamber.

Butterfly Heart- Butterflies have linear hearts that travel the length of their bodies. They use bloodflow to move their wints and limbs. Their hearts beat fifty to sixty times a minutes.

Bear Heart- A normal heart rate for bears is ninety eight beats per minute while awake and walking. They beat between forty and forty five beats per minute during sleep. They increase with exertion and activity. It beats eight to ten times during hibernation.

Crayfish Brain (cerebral ganglion)

Crayfish Brain (cerebral ganglion): the crayfish actually has no brain, rather a cerebral ganglion, which receives impulses from the feelers and translates them

Elephant Brain: the elephant’s brain is farther back in its head and far away from the forehead; the elephant brain functions much like a human’s, receiving impulses from its eyes, ears, and nose

Bear Brain: bears rely mostly on smell when they navigate, so their brains are more geared toward remembering smells; bears basically smell their way around

Butterfly Brain: butterflies use light to control its metabolic cycles (the signal to migrate) in the brain

Snake Brain: a snake’s brain lacks the part present in most other organisms that enables it to learn, but snakes can still learn some things; the snake’s brain mainly receives signals from its Jacobson’s Organ that takes micro-particles from the air and sends it to the brain

Crayfish Liver

Crayfish liver- also called the digestive gland, which secretes enzymes necessary for the digestion of food
Location-- digestive gland, pair of glands located posterior to the pyloric stomach

Snake Liver- one of the many functions of the liver is to produce bile, which is a digestive enzyme.
Location- the snake liver fills the space between the heart and stomach.

Butterfly liver- Butterflies are designed to handle a liquid diet. An organ called the pharynx at the base of the proboscis expands to create a partial vacuum which allows the liquid to be drawn up the length of the proboscis. Then the food is pushed through the thorax and into the abdomen by contracting muscles that are used to line the digestive track. Food can be stored in an organ called the crop until it is needed. Now, the food travels to the midgut where the nutrients are digested and absorbed by the blood or stored as fat. After the midgut the remaining water is absorbed by the rectum and hindgut.
Location- abdomen of butterfly

Bear Liver- cleans and filters blood, as in many other mammals
Location- abdominal cavity near the stomach

Elephant Liver- cleans and filters blood
Location- underneath the stomach and just to the side of the lungs and heart in the stomach region

1. www.elephant.elehost.com/About_Elephants/Anatomy/The_Brain
2. www.icon.co.za/anatomy
3. www.primidi.com/2005/08/22
4. www.missoulian.com/articles
5. www.hungryhorsenews.com/articles
6. www.naturemuseum.org/online/thebutterflylab/anatomy/internalorgans

Crayfish Classification in Relation to Other Organisms

Crayfish Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Families: Astacoidea, Parastacoidea
Genus: Astacidae, Cambaridae

Sow Bug Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Isopoda
Family: Oniscidae

Hermit Crab Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda (Crustacea)
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Families: Coenobitidae, Diogenidae, Lithodidae, Paguridae

Scorpion Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Scorpiones

Obviously, all of these organisms are animals, and most are arthropods because they have hard exoskeletons, segmentation, and jointed appendages. However, fewer organisms are malacostracas because malacostracas:
1. Have a pair of antennules and antennae
2. Have 8 pairs of legs, with the first pair of legs usually modified into pincers
3. Have 6 abdominal segments that are used for swimming
4. Have compound stalked eyes.
Now the hermit crab and crayfish are decapods, which:
1. Have 10 legs
2. Have 3 front pairs of legs that are called maxillipeds (function as mouthparts)
3. Have claws called chelae
4. Have a tail fan (combined with the telson) called a uropod.
Now the crayfish are further classified into the families Cambaridae and Astacidae. The crayfish is finally separated from other decapods because of its freshwater habitat. Other decapods, like hermit crabs, mostly live in saltwater habitats.

TODAY'S WORK: (1/25/08)
Today in class Maddison continued to work on the structures and functions of the liver, and also edited the team page. Tyler is going to work on the powerpoint, and finish his heart and lungs research. Parris is going to research on the cerebral ganglion. Danielle is working on the stomach, and also on the powerpoint. Corban is in absentia.

TODAY'S WORK: (1/24/08)
Today everyone in the group researched the five organs of a crayfish and how they relate to other animals. Parris worked on the power point. Tonight we will finish our research so we can wrap up tomorrow. Maddison will finish the liver, Tyler will finish the circulatory system, he did the Lungs and gills last night, Danielle will do the stomach and Corban will do the brain. Parris will continue work on the power point.

TODAY'S WORK: (1/23/08)
Today in class Corban and Danielle continued to dissect the crayfish and take pictures of its structures. Maddison
researched information about how structures of crayfish relate to their functions. Tyler helped with dissection and
researched the comparison of five internal organs to other organisms, and edited the team web page with Maddison.
Parris finished how structures of crayfish relate to their functions.
Homework for tonight:
Corban: crayfish classification compared to other arthropods and crustaceans.
Tyler: heart, brain, gills
Maddison: Liver
Danielle: Stomach

TODAY'S WORK: (1/22/08)
Today in class Parris researched the crayfish on the internet. Maddison researched how the structures of crayfish
relate to their functions. Corban and Danielle dissected the crayfish and located the parts to take pictures. And Tyler
created the team page, created anchors, and edited the page, he also researched the description of how the crayfish i
s classified by relating it to other crustaceans/arthropods.