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Monohybrid Crosses and Probability

Monogybrid Crosses and Probability

Activity 1
First 10 times for
Kaitlyn-8 heads 2 tails
Steph- 6 heads 4 tails
Kaylyn- 2 tails 8 heads
Sue- 7 tails 3 heads
Scott-6 heads 4 tails
We each flipped 20 times to reach 100 (20x5=100)

We expected around 50% . Our results showed that it is 50%, however it is unusual to be exactly 50%.

Activity 2
Both heads 21
Both tails 28
1 head and 1 tail 51

The % of the results are:
51% 1 head and 1 tail.
28% both tails
21% both heads.
We expected the results to be really close to 50%.

Activity 3
Info: Our 2 eggs were orange/orange and yellow/red. Orange/orange had 2 orange, 1 yellow, and 1 red offspring, and the yellow/red had 4 orange offspring.
Pure colors makes mixed children.
Each half is 1/2 parent.
What we still want to know: Are 2+ oranges identical?
Did the red and yellow children skip a generation?
Is all orange children rare?
What traits do each color stand for?

Protein Synthesis


mRNA receiving the DNA code


Dark Blue - Guanine
Orange - Thymine
Red - Adenine
Light Blue - Cytosine
Purple - Uracil (substitute for thymine in mRNA)
Far left and Far right - DNA strands
Middle left and Middle right - mRNA

Pink - Cytoplasm
Yellow - Ribosomes
Green - Nucleus
mRNA colors are listed above.



Gel Electrophoresis

Paternity test
The child father is the father because when mixed with the mothers DNA it matches the childs DNA.

We believe suspect one is the guilty one because the DNA matches. The crime scene and suspect one both have one DNA cut with 2 enzymes.
red dots- nucleus
yellow dots-organelles
black x's- chromosomes

Interphase(G1,S,G2) is normal cell activity that prepares the cell for mitosis. G1, S, and G2 all take place during Interphase. During interphase the chromosomes are duplicated.
G1 is a period of major growth and new organelles are being made.
S is short for synthetic phase. During this stage DNA replication adn chromosomal replication occurs.
G2 is the final subphase of Interphase in which the cell undergoes a period of rapid growth to prepate for mitosis. The nucleus is well-defined in this stage.

Metaphase is a stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes (pink x's) line up across the center of the cell. This place is where the chromosomes line up is called the equatorial plate (green line). Also the spindle is formed during this stage.

Anaphase is when the centromeres are pulled by the spindles to the poles and the chromosomes are separated.


Telophase is when the chromosomes reach the poles. The nuclear membranes reappear in this stage.


Blue - Cell membrane
Red - New organelles
Light Blue - Chromosomes
Maroon circle - Nucleus
Purple/orange/yellow/green/magenta - DNA
Pink - Cytoplasm

Cytokinesis occurs in animal cells when the cell membrane pinches in and cytoplasm is divided between the two cells.
In plants however, the cell wall pinches in while a cell plate develops gradually separating the two cells.

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DNA Replication
In DNA replication, two new DNA strands are made. Before DNA can be replicated, it must untwist from its double helix. After untwisting, the bases separate (unzips) at the center using DNA helicase. There is now a left side and a right side. Each new side is the template for the new strands. New bases of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine and a new phosphate/sugar backbone attach to the left side template. These bases and phosphate/sugar backbones attach to the right side next. Finally, there are 2 new DNA strands.
DNA replication occurs during the S phase (synthetic phase).
Vocabulary for this section

Telomeres- the long stretches that make up the ends of the chromosomes; protects the end of the chromosome from destruction
Looking at a ladder, you can see the tips or the telomeres. These protectors keep the chromosomes from fraying away.

Okazaki fragments- the relatively short fragment of DNA; created on the lagging strand during DNA replication; a fragment of bacterial DNA that occurs during replication and is afterwards linked with other fragments to form the long double-helical strand of the typical DNA molecule. Using railroad tracks as an example, the okazaki fragments are the backbone or the railing for the phosphate and sugar molecules.

DNA ligase (particular type of enzyme that can catalyse the joining of the sugar phosphate) - can link together DNA strands that have double-strand breaks Like Santa’s little helpers, the DNA ligase link together the double-strand breaks.

Telomerase- is an enzyme that adds telomere repeat sequences to the 3’ end of DNA strands.
Say that you are trying to cross a bridge and you just can’t quite reach the end. To solve this dilemma you add boards to the ends of the sides. The telomerase is very similar to this because it adds telomere repeat pieces or boards to the 3’ ends of DNA strands.

Cancer- Cells that grow rapidly and without control. They will grow over themselves creating masses of cells called tumors.

Transplanted Cells- To fix genetic defects scientists have worked on removing cells, altering their chromosomes and then replacing the new, repaired cells.
Age and Cells- When cells age they lose some of their genetic codes as they reproduce. This results in an increase of genetic mutations.

What the colors stand for:
Dark blue-Cytosine
light blue-Guanine
black- the sugar and phosphate backbone
The one on the left is step one, the one on the right, step two.
This is step 3.
These represent steps 4 and 5 of DNA replication.
Finally, this is step six.

Steps in the DNA process( go along with the pictures above ^^ ^^)
1.) The first step is when the DNA untwists.
2.) The bases split in places of the chain that are rich in A -T. The enzyme that is in charge of splitting the DNA stands is called helicase.
3.) Each side becomes the template for the new strands.
4.) The new bases and a phosphate/sugar backbone begin attaching themselves to the left side of the template.
5.) The new bases and a phosphate/sugar backbone begin attaching themselves to the right side of the template.
6.) The replication is complete and there is now two strands of DNA.


Leaf Structures
  • Function of the .......
  • guard cell- The guard cell's job is to control the stomatal openings in the epidermis of the leaf. They also facilitate gas exchange between the inner parts of leaves, stems, and plants.
  • Stomata are tiny plant structures found on the outer skin layer, also known as the epidermis, of plants. The gas that enters through the stomata is carbon dioxide. The gases that exit through the stomata are oxygen and water vapor.
  • We all know that plants can be truly fascinating organisms, but there are so many parts to the plant that make it even more fascinating that you've probably never even thought of before.
    Plants are what we call autotrophs. This means that they have the ability to make their own food using the process of photosynthesis. How exactly does this process work? The formula for photosynthesis is: 6 Carbon Dioxide molecules + 6 Water molecules to Glucose and 6 Oxygen molecules. Carbon dioxide and water are the reactants in this formula, and the glucose and oxygen are the products. During the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis, oxygen is released from the stomata and ATP and Hydrogen move on to the light independent reaction. Also during this process, water is split through the process of photolysis. During the light independent reaction, glucose is made and oxygen is another product.
    In photosynthesis, the stomata and the guard cells have unknown significance. Stomata are microscopic pores in a leaf that are found in the leaf's epidermal tissue. The stomata is used for gas exchange. The guard cells surround the stomata. Guard cells help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata. When the guard cells shrink, the stomata closes. When the guard cells expand, the stomata opens. Both have significance because the guard cells regulate the stomata and the stomata regulates the gas exchange of a cell. Because the stomata regulates gas exchange, it is used in photosynthesis and respiration.
  • Sources:
> Light Intensity
  • 0,400.png
  • ----

  • || Time || Max ATP% || Light intensity || Wavelength || #of ATP made ||
  • || 5 minutes || 100% || 200 || 425 || 50 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 90% || 180 || 420 || 44 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 85% || 200 || 650 || 42 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 76.5% || 180 || 650 || 37 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 68% || 160 || 650 || 34 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 65% || 200 || 400 || 32 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 58.5% || 180 || 400 || 29 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 27.5% || 200 || 675 || 14 ||
  • || 5 minutes || 7.5% || 200 || 500 || 4 ||
  • What is light intensity?
  • Light Intensity is a measure of the wavelength given off or produced by a light source in a particular direction.
  • What is the best possible conditions for making the maximum of ATP?
  • From our lab data we found the most ATP was made at 420 nano meters of wavelength and 200lx(luminous efficacy) of light intensity.
  • What is the relation between wavelength and light intensity?
  • The shorter the wavelength the higher the light intensity is.
  • The human eye can only see wavelengths between 400 and 700 nano meters. A rainbow is composed of the entire spectrum of colors of visible light, from the longest wavelength, red, to the shortest wavelength, violet. The order of colors in a rainbow is easiest to remember by the following mnemonic ROY G. BIV. red(700), orange(650), yellow(600), green(550), blue(450),indigo, and V=(ultra400)violet. Infra red is not visible light because its wavelength is 750.The amount of nano meters in wavelength is what causes the colors to change. Light reaction comes into play in photosyhthesis when your light intensity is two low or two high the plant will not produce its maximum ATP.
  • General Observations:
  • higher wavelength the moulecules tended to move faster.
  • A really low light intensity and wavelength produced a low amount of ATP.
  • wavelength seemed to impact ATP production more so than light intensity as you can see from our data.
  • light intensity is measured in lux, the amount of energy(light) per unit area per second.
  • photosynthesis is light dependent and needs a fair amount of light intensity to operate. A low light intensity means less energy from photosynthesis is made.
  • Light reaction
  • The light dependent reaction produces oxygen gas. Then it converts ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. This process converts solar energy into potenital energy.
> Dark reaction
  • These reactions, unlike the light dependent reaction, do not need light to occur.
  • Also called the light-independent reactions need the products of the light reactions. The chemical process converts the carbon dioxide and other moulecules into glucose. The dark reaction takes place in the stroma(fluid filled area of a chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes.)

Table Contents for cell comparison Portfolio

1. Purpose of the portfolio and learning goals- Steph's page
2. Before and after pictures- Kate's page
Hypothesis paragraph- Sue's Page
Surface area to volume ratios and what we learned- Sue's page
Why Cells are small- Kate's page
3. Cell diffusion info & picture- Kaylyn's page
4. Onion cell photos- voice thread
Onion cell question answers- Steph's page
5. Cheek cell photos- voice thread
Cheek cell question answers- Sue's page
6. Elodea cell photos- voice thread
7. Salt solution changes using the words osmosis, diffusion, hypertonic, and hypotonic-sue's page
8. How sizes compare
9. Cell differences
10.Cell Portfolio Questions/Answers- one of them is on kate's page

Cell Portfolio Voicethread.

<< Messed up on what we said? Check out the script for our project, located on Steph's page. Go See It Now. >>

Candy Lab

Crayfish Lab

Crayfish lab logs:

Today's work: (1/31/08)
All members working on cell project and fixing the powerpoint. Sue and Kaylyn edited the turtle part of the powerpoint. Kaitlyn changed some of the pictures on the powerpoint.

Today's work: (1/30/08)
Kaitlyn and Scott scanned more picture and edited them. Steph, Sue, Scott worked on powerpoint and started the cell project.

Today's work: (1/29/08)
All members working on powerpoint. Kaitlyn scanned some pictures, helped Kaylyn finish the diagrams. Scott, Kaylyn,and Sue were the main people working on powerpoint. Steff edited the powerpoint and reserched some more on the octopus and penguin.

Today's work: (1/28/08)
took classification test

Today's work: (1/25/08)
Kaitlyn, Sue and Scott worked on the powerpoint. Steph reserched more on penguins. Kaylyn continued drawling and labeling diagrams.
Homework: Try to wrap up all the reserch and finish powerpoint soon.

Today's work: (1/24/08)
Kaitlyn, Steph, and Scott worked on the powerpoint, while Sue and Kaylyn worked on drawling and labeling the crayfish diagrams. Homework: All members needed some more reserch.

Today's work: (1/23/08)
Today's goal was to finish dissecting and to start comparing the crayfish to the penguin, turtle, butterfly, octpus. Kaitlyn took pictures and reserched more on the crayfish,while Sue, Scott,and Kaylyn, Steph began reserching the animals listed above. Homework for tonight was to compare the five organs:brain,heart,lungs/gills,stomach, reproductive organs to the crayfish's. : Kaitlyn- crayfish Sue- butterfly Scott-Octpus Kaylyn- turtle Steph- penguin

Today's work: (1/22/08)
Kaylyn and Sue dissected one crayfish and Kaitlyn and Steph dissected the second one. Kaitlyn also tooks some pictures of the crayfish. Scott researched about the crayfish's structures and functions.


Info for Cell Comparison Portfolio.

1. Abstract - In this lab, we learned that cells are very different. We answered main questions like "How do onion, cheek, and other cells compare in size?" and "Why are cells so small?"
2. Lab Info -
Before and After Pictures::
Hypothesis and Observations::
Surface Area : Volume

Why are cells so small?Cells have to be small in order to do the function that allows organisms to live. They transport nutrients and waste to where they are needed. The cell's job doesn't require all of the energy the cell has, but if the cell was larger, it would need more energy possibly using all of the cell's energy. The larger the surface area, the more volume a cell has. If the cell became too large, it wouldn't function properly. Sooner or later, the cell would stop growing, due to the lack of energy to move all of the nutrients and waste.
3. Diffusion Info -

4. The Onion Cell

5. The Cheek Cell
6. The Elodea Cell
7. Salt Water + Elodea = ???
8. How do the sizes compare?
9. Individual Cell Differences...
Kaylyn -
Kaitlyn -
Sue -
Steph -

Scott -

Exercise For Health
Our Question: What is the difference between a fit (Kate) and unfit (Scott) person jump roping?
Athlete - Kate
Nonathlete - Scott
Stopwatch Women - Kaylyn and Steph
Recorder - Sue Ann

Plan: Scott and Kate are going to jump rope for 3 minutes. We'll note the amount of times they stop. We'll also note how many times they mess up and how long they jump rope without messing up or stopping.

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