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Lindsey and Tawnee's radical DNA Replication perfect paint picture!!!! (say that 10x fast)

first_strandddddd.png second_strnadddddd.png

The first step in DNA replication is that the twisting spiral staircase unwinds. Once it is unwound the bases unzip by DNA helicase. Now we have two templates, the left side and the white side. New bases, sugar and phosphate groups attach to the old left and right sides to form two DNA molecules that are identical.

Light Intensity
By: Ivy, Amy, and Christine

Experiment Plan
Christine-Create a data table.

Amy -What are the best possible conditions for making the maximum of ATP? Understand the relationship between wavelength, energy, and the color of the actual light.

Ivy-Research background information about light intensity. Identify how wavelength and light intensity is important in the light reaction of photosynthesis. Be certain to completely relate these to the light reaction.


% Maximal ATP
Number of ATP
Light Intensity in Lux

*To get it to be 100% Maximal ATP you have to have 200 Light Intensity in Lux and 425 Wavelength.

Light intensity is the brightness of a light source. “Lumen”, the unit of total light output from a source of light. “Footcandles” and “lux”, are the units that determine the density of the light falling on a surface. “Candlepower”, the measures of lighting concentration in a light beam. “Brightness”, is the expression of the amount of light emitted from a surface per area unit.
Photosynthesis light reactions take place in the thylakoids. The purpose of light reactions is to convert light energy into chemical energy in ATP and NADPH form. ATP and NADPH are energy carriers. These carry energy to the dark reactions, which is the second part of photosynthesis. Light intensity is not always the most useful when measuring photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis depends on irradiance, not light intensity. Photosynthesis rate at different wavelengths visible light, shows two peaks that correspond to the chlorophyll absorption peaks.

Best possible conditions for making the maximum of ATP: 200 Light Intensity, and between 425 and 650 in wavelength.
Understanding relationships between wavelength, energy, and color of the actual light: Wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency, energy is the ability to do work, and the color of the actual light is when light strikes your clothing, all colors are absorbed but the color you are wearing.

Enzyme Investigation: Group Part
By: Ivy Shreckengost, Amy Decker, Lauren McKee, Heather Rodgers, & Christine Quick
As the hydrogen peroxide was poured into each beaker of food, a reaction took place. The peroxide bubbled more when poured on the liver and ground beef rather than the fruits and vegetables. This happens because in meat there is an enzyme called catalase that reacts with the hydrogen peroxide. We have seen reactions like this when using hydrogen peroxide to clean cuts. Catalase is found in the red blood cells of most living things. For this reason, when you get a cut and place hydrogen peroxide on it, a reaction is caused. This is why bubbles are seen. If hydrogen peroxide is placed on your skin when there are no cuts or open places in the skin, no reaction will occur because there is no catalase present.
While doing the experiment, we asked ourselves several questions. Why does the hydrogen peroxide bubble little with some things and foam with others? What makes the hydrogen peroxide react to the beef and liver, but not react to the grapes and onions?
I, have seen a reaction like this before. When I have gotten cut, I had hydrogen peroxide poured onto my cut. When the cut fizzes, it is infected and if the cut does not fizz, then it is not infected.

Room Temperature
few bubbles
bubbles are going upward

Our log for Crayfish Dissection:

Monday- We all started preparing for how to dissect the crayfish and looked up some terminology.
Tuesday-Lindsey and Tawnee looked up information while Amy and Ivy started the dissection. Tawnee made the wiki page and took pictures. Lindsey found five organs in the crayfish that we will later relate to another five( including the crayfish) organisms.(recorded at 1:49 P.M.) Ivy and Amy finished dissecting at 2:08 p.m. and we are all now researching on specific topics. (2:23 P.M.)
Wednesday-Ivy looked up research on comparing the crayfish to other crustaceans. Amy defined the crayfish organs. Tawnee and Lindsey related crayfish organisms to other animals organisms.
Thursday-Amy defined the functions of crayfish organs. Ivy compared other crustaceans to the crayfish. Tawnee and Lindsey related crayfish organisms to the organisms of other animals.
Friday-Lindsey and Tawnee compared their information for relating five organisms to the crayfish. Amy finished defining the organs of the crayfish. Ivy updated the wiki page and uploaded the definitions and the comparison to other crustaceans.

Crayfish Organ Definitions

By: Amy Decker
Abdomen-part of the body that is posterior to the cephalothorax largely composed of flexor muscles and covered by numerous jointed plates
Anus-located at distal end of digestive tract; used to discharge solid wastes from the body
Antenna-paired appendages used for touch, taste, and smell
Antennule-paired appendages used for touch, chemical sensation, and balance
Cardiac stomach-most proximal part of the body; it receives food from the esophagus for storage before being sent to the gastric mill for further grinding
Carapace-anterior covering of the crustacean body largely composed of lime and sclerotin
Cervical groove-jointed between the cephalothorax and abdomen
Cheliped-appendages used for grasping food and defense
Eye-organ used for sight located at the base of the rostrum
Green glands-used to remove nitrogenous wastes from the body while retaining salt; kidney-like structures
Heart-muscle that pumps blood
Intestine-site of most digestion; located posterior to the digestive gland
Mandibles-used to crush food before it is passed through to the esophagus
Maxilla 1st, 2nd, 3rd-tearing food, movement of water over the gills during periods of lower water flow, and pushing food into the mouth
Rostrum-useful in protecting the base of the antenna/antennule system
Swimmerets-useful in slow swimming, small structures located on the ventral surface of the abdomen
Telson-useful in backward swimming; 7th segment of the abdomen in a crayfish
Uropod-useful in backward swimming, lateral plate, located on either side last abdominal segment
Ventral nerve cord-equivalent to the spinal cord of higher animals except that it travels along the ventral side
Walking legs-appendages responsible for walking and transportation


Comparing the Crayfish to other Crustaceans

By: Ivy Shreckengost
Crayfish are classified as crustaceans. Which means they have three body parts; head, abdomen, and thorax. Crustaceans also have a thick exoskeleton.
Crayfish can be found in streams, where they have protection against predators and where freshwater is not running into, they can also live underground. They breathe thru their gills. The crayfish has two main body parts; cephalothoraxes and the abdomen. They have a hard exoskeleton and are about seven and a half centimeters in length. Crayfish can be eaten or also used as a pet.
Lobsters are another example of a crustacean. Which are closely related to crayfish as well as resemble it. They also have a hard exoskeleton and can be eaten. They feed on crustaceans and other living mollusks. Lobsters are found in a variety of different colors.
Shrimp are also a crustacean. You can find them in freshwater as well as salt water. Their gill structure helps to classify them. Shrimp can be used as a pet and they can be eaten.
Another example of a crustacean is a crab. They have a very short tail. The thorax helps to hide the abdomen underneath it. Crabs also have a thick exoskeleton to protect them. Crabs are found in all bodies of salt water and even some freshwater. They don’t use their claws for moving; they have five pair of legs. Their gills form flat plates. It is extremely easy to determine the sex of a crab. They are omnivores, which means that mainly feed on algae; however, they also eat crustaceans, worms, mollusks, and plants. Crabs are 20% of all marine animals that are caught.


Have gills that act as lungs do in pigs and mammals. The gills provide a large surface area for contact between blood and water. This allows oxygen to diffuse from the water and into the blood stream.
Has a cardiac stomach that has a grinding function to grind up food.
They don’t have a liver.
Sends blood into the spaces around the organs through several arteries. After passing through the gills, blood drains back into the heart through openings.
Where food travels after the stomach and absorbs into the blood stream.
When pigs breathe air simply goes in and out of their lungs as it does in humans. It inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide.
Major stomach function is to temporarily store food and release it slowly into the duodenum.
It is the main metabolizing organ in the body, but also synthesizes bile salts and storage of glycogen and vitamins.
Has four chambers; two valves, arteries and veins.
Portion of the digestive track between stomach and anus. Where most nutrients are absorbed.
When chickens breathe the air goes into air sacs and hollow bones all interconnected to their lungs. When they breathe in the air first goes into their abdominal air sacs, then the bird breathes out and the air goes into the lungs, then into the interclavicular, thoracic, and anterior air sacs. Therefore it takes two breathes for air to pass in and out of a chicken’s body.
Have two stomachs. One to proventriculus secretes hydraulic acid and pepsin, which aids in protein digestion. The second is the muscular stomach and grinds the food.
The liver of a chicken secretes bile and stores vitamins. It is used for meat when the chicken is butchered.
A four chambered hearted. Special adaptations allows for efficient nutrients and oxygen to transport throughout the body, providing birds with energy to fly.
The muscular stomach empties into the small intestine, which consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. Small intestine is attached to the large, and empties out of anus.
Frogs use lungs to breathe on land; they use skin to breathe underwater. Oxygen is transported directly from the skin into the bloodstream when underwater. They also have a three-chambered heart.
Just a regular stomach, similar to humans, besides that they eat everything whole and the stomach is the first step in digestion.
Largest structure in the body cavity, liver is also very similar to humans and is made up of three lobes, which secretes bile and helps in digestion of fats mostly.
Shaped like a triangle, located at the top of the liver.
Has a big and small intestine, both helping in digestion, small comes right after the stomach, large then follows, last step before wastes exit the body.
An egg gets its oxygen through tiny water repellent pores in the skin. An adult uses pores called spiracles to breathe. From the spiracles, they go through a series of tracheal tubes.
Empties when the pupa forms, adult does not need a stomach because it stays on a liquid diet; they consume their food using their respiratory system. They organ that serves the closest purpose of a stomach would be midgut, the place where the nutrients are absorbed by the blood.
A butterfly does not have a digestive system alike to many animals. They remain on a liquid diet and the digestive system only consists of organs in the respiratory system like the pharynx and the thorax. The closest thing to a liver in a butterfly would be the crop, a place where food may be stored in the butterfly.
The Heart of a butterfly is tube-like and located in the abdomen. The heart is very flexible and the blood pumped from the heart does not transport oxygen, only nutrients throughout the body through the use of spiracles.
A butterfly does once again not have a digestive system. But they do have a pharynx and a proboscis which act as tunnels to take nutrients to the proper places.

Our very own Candy Dichotomous Key!


Lindsey, Ivy, Amy, and Tawnee.