AdamM
MattW
NIckW
DereckW

An Anti-Westover Production (Cell Portfolio Project)

An Anti-Westover pH Production (pH Testing)

Photosynthesis

DNA Replication

Mitosis

Monohybrid crosses and probability

Crayfish Dissection


Slide1.jpg




1-22-08
Today, we started dissecting our crayfish. Adam, Nick, and Matt were in charge of the dissecting. Dereck was in charge of taking pictures. The first thing we did was locate the gills which were located in the cephalothorax. Then, we located all other exterior parts because we forgot to before hand. after locating all the exterior parts, we removed a walking leg with a gill attached to it. Next we opened up the crayfish's cephalothorax and looked at the muscles...they looked quite weird. Next we opened up the top of the tail and saw the intestine and flexor muscles. following the muscles we looked at the nervous system. first, we looked at the brain. that was one of the smallest brains in bio class. following the nervous system we looked at the circulatory system. In this section we located the digestive glands and the heart. Next we located the digestive and excretory systems. We looked at the stomach and it was quite large compared to the other organs. these led to the anus.

1-23-08
Today, we posted the info on the wiki and typed the chart. we researched more info and will have the chart on hopefully tomorrow.

1-25-08
Today, we finished editing our wiki page. The terminology and the chart is completely done.


Antenna- used to detect the surroundings of the organism on the head so more can be detected
Antennule-small pair of antenna
Rostrum- located on the thorax
Eye-used for sight, is on the head so more can be seen
Cheliped- curved appendage at the end of the leg
Walking legs/where they are connected- used for walking, are located on the under side of the crawfish
Cervical groove- part of the spine located right behind the skull
Abdomen- located in the center of the crawfish. Is located there because it contains many vital organs
Uropod- any abdominal appendage
Mandible- lower jawbone
1st, 2nd, 3rd maxilliped/ where they are connected- mouth appendage located behind the maxillia
1st, 2nd maxilla/ where they are connected- upper jawbone, is fused together with the cranium

Crayfish to Crustacean

The crayfish is classified as a crustacean because it has a thick exoskeleton and three body parts. These body parts are the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Crayfish, along with other crustaceans are found in bodies of fresh water. The crayfish and other crustacean’s method of breathing is by use of their gills. Crayfish along with other crustaceans’ exoskeleton’s main use is protection against predators.
An example of a crustacean is a lobster. Lobsters are much like crayfish because they have the three main body parts and an exoskeleton. They both have the same characteristics.


Crayfish to Arthropods

The crayfish is also classified as an arthropod because like other arthropods it has antennae, 3 body parts, hard exoskeleton and six legs. (Arthropods have six or more)

Cell Size Lab


Our original hypothesis was that the mid sized cube would live the longest but we were wrong. The smallest of the blocks is the most effective at receiving the materials. It is the most effective because it the least amount of volume thus reaching maximum capacity faster. The other blocks are much more dense so they take longer to reach maximum capacity. An example of a material being passed through the cell is water, carbohydrates or oxygen. The cell is small because it is able to get its resources sooner.

1x1x1
SA=6
SA:V=6:1

2x2x2
SA=28
SA:V=4:1

3x3x3
SA=54
SA:V=2:1

Nucleus- Nucleus stuff-
Our part of the cell is the nucleus.

The nucleus is the epicenter of the cell.


The Relationship between wavelength, photosynthesis and color.

The picture of the color spectrum in the link below represents the relationship between wavelength and color. The wavelength is represented in nanometers. The higher the wavelength, the farther along on the color spectrum it is. From the graphic, you can conclude that the higher the wavelength is, the more light gets into the plant. This is important to photosynthesis because the as more light gets to the plant, photosynthesis can occur that much faster.

Photosythesis Terms:

wavelength-the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency

energy-ATP in photosynthesis; scalar physical quantity that is a property of objects and systems which is conserved by nature. Energy is often defined as the ability to do work


color of actual light-
a small portion of the electro magnetic spectrum; the colors of the rainbow

Light Intensity
Light intensity is important in photosynthesis because it is a light dependant process. Low light intensity becomes a limiting factor. It is proven that plants grow better outside than indoors because of the light intensity.

Relation between energy, frequency and wavelength
The energy of a wave is directly proportional to its frequency but inversly proportional to its wavelength. The greater the energy the larger the frequency the shorter the wavelength. Short wavelengths are more energietic than long ones.

Light Reaction
In the Light light reaction, light strikes chlorophyll in a way as to excite electrons to a higher energy form. In a series of reactions the energy is converted into ATP and NADPH. Water is split in the process, releasing oxygen as a by-product of the reaction. The ATP and NADPH are used to make C-C bonds in the dark reaction.

Dark Reaction
In the dark reaction, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is captured and modified by the addition of Hydrogen to form carbohydrates. The interference of carbon dioxide into organic compounds is known as carbon fixation. This comes from the first phase of the photosynthetic process. Living systems cannot directly utilize light energy, but, through a complicated series of reactions, convert it into C-C bond energy that can be released by glycolysis and other metabolic processes.

Frequency and Wavelength
Wavelength and frequency of light are related because, the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. Since all light waves move through a vacuum at the same rate, the number of wave crests passing by a given point in one second depends on the wavelength. That number will be larger for a short-wavelength wave than for a long-wavelength wave.


The following chart is what happens when you change the wavelength and not the light intensity. It doesn't follow any real path for repeating itself so its sort of just in random numbers...hope it helps!



Stomata are pores found of the underside of a plant leaf. It is mainly used for gas exchange. The pore is formed by a special pair of cells known as guard cells. Most plants require the stomata to be open during the daytime. The stomata is the way a plant transfers the CO2, light, and water from the surrounding atmosphere in to the plant. The entire intake of the stomata is controlled by the guard cells.

The guard cells are the cells that regulate what go in and out of the cell. They are found on the very edge of the stomata. These guard cells always come in pairs of two and are together except for the stomata in the middle. The stomata are pores in the cell that allow substances to go in and out of the cell. Some of the things that go through the stomata are carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor. Some of the things that cause the pores to open more or less are humidity, light intensity, water availability, and carbon dioxide concentration.



% of maximal ATP
ATP created in 5 minutes
light intensity
wavelength
32.5
16
100
400
50
26
100
425
7.5
4
100
450
3.8
2
100
475
3.8
2
100
500
5
3
100
525
7.5
4
100
550
6
3
100
575
10
6
100
600
29
15
100
625
42.5
21
100
650
13.8
7
100
675
2.5
2
100
700
2
2
100
725
1.5
1
100
750


We found all of our information on: www.wikipedia.org





DNA Replication:


DNA Replication Terms

Telomeres-These are the “aglet” like caps at the end of the chromosomes. They are important because they keep the chromosomes from getting attached to each other.

Okazaki fragments- This is a short strand of DNA that is created on a lagging strand.

DNA ligase- This is a ligase that can connect DNA strands.

Telomerase- This is an enzyme that attaches DNA sequences to the ends of DNA strands

Cancer- These are cells that grow rapidly and without any control. When the cell becomes very large it becomes a tumor.

Cloning- Cloning is making a exact copy of DNA using DNA fragments

Aging- Aging is any change in a organism over time.

Now for what you've all been waiting for!!! You can see our interpretation of DNA reproduction!!!


1.
Antiwestover_part_1.png

This photo shows what the DNA looks like unwound but not unzipped. The key presented will be the same for throughout the photos following!

2.
DNA_step_2_Antiwestovers.png
This photo shows the DNA separating, or unzipping, and preparing to connect with the other sugar/phosphate backbone.

3. Antiwestover_part_3.png

















This photo shows what happens when the DNA link up with each other and are forming new DNA!

4.
Antiwestover_part_4.png

Ta Da!!! two completely identical DNA are formed when this process is complete!!!




Mitosis

Key.....murdock.png




Interphase-where the cell prepares itself for cell division. It has three phases G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap).
interphase....png
Prophase-chromosomes doubled to 92.
prophase.murdock.png















Metaphase- The chromosomes align in the center of the cell to get ready to separate.awmetaphase.png

Anaphase!
Anaphase...westover.png




pacostacosmitosis.png

Cytokinesis- This is the phase of Mitosis where the cytoplasm splits so the mother cell can become two daughter cell.

murdock_protein_synthesis.jpg




Monohybrid crosses and probability

Activity 1
What is the chance that you will get both heads? A head and a tail? Both tails?


Toss your two pennies in your group 100 times. (1) What are the percent of the outcomes? (2) What should the percent of the outcomes be?

1. The percent of the outcomes are 55% heads and 45% tails.

2. The percents of the outcome should be 50 50, which means we are very close.



Activity 2


Activity 3

What we already know
What we still need to know
Questions we have
Answers to our questions
We already know that there are 3 colors of egg. The eggs represent parents and they each had 4 offspring.
We still need to know why the offspring are the color that they are.






R-red
r-yellow
Rr-orange

Parent 1-Orange Orange--2 Rr, r, R
Parent 2-Yellow Red--4 Rr

R
R
r
Rr
Rr
r
Rr
Rr


R
r
R
RR
Rr
r
Rr
rr