Air pollution

Smog Sources

These sources give off these known smog particles.

VOCs-- Volatile organiccompound gases

PM-- Particulate Matter

NOx-- Nitrogen Oxide

SO2-- Sulfur Oxide



Refineries, Chemical Plants





Power Plants


Tucks, Buses, etc. give off diesel particles.

Air Quality Index

0-50 -- Good, little to now risk, satisfactory
51-100 -- Moderate; moderate health concern for a small group of people, acceptable
101-150 -- Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups; affects people who are more sesitive towards harmful effects, such as people that are
active outdoors and people with respiratory disease are at risk from ozone, and people with heart diseases are in danger
due to carbon monoxide
151-200 -- Unhealthy; sensitive groups will face more sever affects but everyone is affected at this point
201- 300 -- Very Unhealthy; health alert is triggered, everyone experiences serious effects
301-500 -- Hazardous; health warnings of emergency conditions is triggered, entire population is likely to be affected.

during the analysis of the information. on smog and air pollution i concluded that the air pollution and higher c02 emitions are a direct effect of th large citie around them for the mass transit and constant bumper to bumper trafic releases a lot of excess c02 into the atmaspher. so i conclude that hat bigger cities have higher CO2 emissions due to the fact of people living.

Top 10 Cities in 1999 that hit 100 on the emissions index

Sacramento, California:: 48 days
Fresno, California:: 83 days
Bakersfield, California:: 94 days
San Bernadino, California:: 97 days
Houston, Texas :: 54 days
Louisville, Kentucky:: 44 days
Nashville, Tennessee:: 45 days
Atlanta, Georgia:: 69 days
Knoxville, Tennessee:: 62 days
Charlotte, North Carolina:: 42 days
Rock Hill, South Carolina:: 42 days

our smog city data

Survey Questions

Are the windows in your house that are facing north and south shaded by trees?
Is your house drafty during the winter months?
Do you use a blanket during the winter because you feel wind coming through the windows and/or doors?
Is you attic fully insulated stopping cold air from getting through to the house?
Are you windows and doors fully shut during the summer to stop the air conditioning from cooling the out side?
Do you have any skylights in your house? If so are they fully sealed to stop the air from outside from coming into your house?
Does your home have a concrete basement?
Is your house made of brick?
Do you have and use blinds on your windows?
Does it take long during the winter to receive hot water for any house hold activity?
Do you place and extra layer of insulation on your water heater?
During the summer do you open the blinds to help heat your home to a comfortable temperature?
Instead of using the air conditioning in the summer, do you open a window to cool your home to a comfortable temperature?
Are the outside door on your house weather-stripped?
Are your windows caulked to prevent air leaks?

Rooms -- Areas
  1. of windows
window direction
  1. of lights
  1. of lights on
blinds open shut
  1. of appliances
Art storage
no direction
no blinds
Home Econ. storage
no direction
no blinds
Senior Hall
no blinds
Tech Hall
no blinds


1.) Ways to save energy in our area? -- open windows instead of using the heat, shut off the computers, unplug unused appliances.
2.) Where is most of the energy being used?-- not shutting off the computers every night to save power.

AJ http://www.cyber-nook.com/water/Solutions.html
Common Water Treatment Methods for Domestic Use
1. Boiling2. Distillation3. Reverse Osmosis4. Water Filters

Christian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification
combining chlorine with the water disinfects it from most bacterial items.

Natural minerals: calcium carbonate, magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate.
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/ess05/sci/ess/watcyc/h2otreatment/index.html (shows water cleaning process in video)

1.boil water vigorously for 5-10 min.
2. use an eye dropper and add 8 drop of liquid bleach, 8 drops per gallon. 16 if the water is cloudy.
3.using a 2% tincture of iodine(found in a first aid kit) add 20 drops per gallon of water. 40 if water is cloudy. let stand for 30 min.
4. sprinkle with a little salt to sweeten taste.

Follow the following link.
**National Weather Service's Climate Prediction Center: Frequently Asked Questions about El Nino and La Nina**
El nino/La nina:

Read about characteristics of el nino and la nina. Write down facts about both on a worksheet and then compile your notes on the spot on the wiki. Form a hypothesis and make a prediction for one of the following:
This year will be an el nino year.
This year will be a la nina year.
This will be a normal year.

From here on, you will collect real time data of locations from the following site: **Realtime Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Data**

Click on "Data Display".

Click on "Time series plots".

Select averaging: click the "daily" button.

Choose the buoy location. On the gray grid of buoy locations, check the box at your coordinates. For example: 110W, Eq (Eq stands for Equator, that is 0 degrees north). That is 110 west, 0 north. Your ooordinate is listed below above your data table.

Select sensors: Scroll down to pick up which data you would like to see. Adjust the checkmarks so that only the 4 following boxes are checked: Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, SST (surface sea temperature).

Select time range: Choose the data range you want to look at. Because there is a lag in time for data being posted to the website, adjust the date for "begin" to be 3 days before today's date. "End" can stay at "latest".

Click "Make plot". A graph will appear in a new window. Read the most recent data point and record it in your table. Make sure you record all 4 readings.

If data does not exist for your location, choose the nearest possible location that does have all the data. Be sure to write down its coordinates.

your coordinate: 110 West 0 North
Air temp.
Sea Level temp. (SST)
Wind speed
Wind direction
This will be a normal year because no storm, either El Nino or La Nina, can be labeled at the time of the storm.
1. Visit the team pages, to find the data sea level temperature and wind direction for 110 west, 0 North and 147 East, 0 North. Write the data here:
SST=22.74 WD=256.5 (AJ) SST=29.02 WD= 145.7 (Christian)

2. A normal year would have the following data. Decide what an el nino and la nina year would be and complete the chart.

normal year
el nino year
la nina year
sea level temp.
110 W, 0 N
July-Dec.: 22-23 C
Jan.-June: 25-26 C
July-Dec.:25-30 C
Jan.-June: 29-32 C
July- Dec.: 20 - 25 C
Jan.-June: 20 - 25 C
sea level temp.
147 E, 0 N
Jan.-Mar.: 28-29 C
Apr.-Dec.: 29-30 C
Jan.-Mar.: 30-33 C
Apr.-Dec.: 30-33 C
Jan.-Mar.: 25-27 C
Apr.-Dec.: 33-37 C
wind direction
110 W, 0 N
East to west winds
South to north
north to south
wind direction
147 E, 0 N
East to west winds
west to east
north to south

3. Based on the data from #1 and what you put in the chart for #2, is the world currently in an El nino or la nina cycle? Explain your answer.
(AJ) This will be a normal year in general cause each place has a different average.
(Mike, Brie, Christian) El nino, Global warming)
4. Does your answer for #3 agree with the hypothesis your team made before starting to collect data?(Mike)
5. Look at the other buoys from other teams. Which of those buoys help to decide whether it is an el nino or la nina year?(AJ)
El Nino El Nina
Baby(on the way)
6. How do you think the conditions you tracked will influence global weather patterns? Use the following websites for more information:
Tropical regions will accumulate more precipitation this year (Brie)
**El Nino Related Global Temperature and Precipitation Patterns**
**La Nina Related Global Temperature and Precipitation Patterns**

7. Based on the data you gathered, what kind of weather predictions can you make for western PA this winter?
Western PA will have less snow and more rain because of the increased temperature.(Christian)

Use the following website:
**El Nino and La Nina Related Winter Features Over North America**



1. OIL
At the beginning of the Cleaning Water lab we were given 100 ml. of water to clean. The first step was to remove the oil. We decided to use a funnel tube with a detachable tube to clamp when the oil was filtered. By the end of this process we were left with 90 ml. of water.

With 90 ml. of water left from the oil filtration we then got rid of the solid pieces in the water. We first used a sand and gravel filtration method. After this process we used a funnel and filter paper. This took a total of two days to filter. With a little mishap happening after the filtration we finished this step with 57 ml. of water.

3. Cloudyness
From 100 ml. of water to 57 ml. on day four. This time we were going to get rid of all the cloudy/foggy appearance deluded into the remaining water. A carbon compound mixture was added to the water, stirred, and then was left to set for five minutes. After the compound had taken effect we used a funnel and filter paper to dispose of the extra carbon. After this procedure we were left with 55 ml. of water. (only 1/2 of the water had been filtered with the carbon.)

4. Final Filtration
Still in need of filtration, we took the final 55 ml. of water and separated the carbon from it. Finally at the end of this process we were left with 37 ml. of water.(This water still has a compound not seen to the naked eye to be filtered out. This compound is known only by our instructor who mixed the tainted solution.)

Foul water analysis:

Rewrite your information to include the following parts:
A. Procedure - tell specifically what you did including use of equipment in all the steps of the water cleaning. This should make sense to another person and they should be able to repeat your procedure by reading it.
B. Materials you used

C. Results. Use a table like below or create a similar one: (Volume in Milliliters)
Filtration method
Volume before
Volume after
Observations (look,smell...)
Removing oil
Cloudy, rancid Italian dressing scent.
Removing solids
Still cloudy and still stinks like garlic.
Removing cloudiness
No scent, clearer than before.

D. Analysis. Split up the work so that everyone is working on a different questions (put your name with your answer).
1. What is your percent recovery? Take the final volume divided by the starting volume and times it by 100. You will have a number between 0 and 100.
37% (Christian X)
2. Do a search on potable water. What does potable mean?
Drinking water (brought to you by Christian X)
3. Can any water source become potable through filtration alone? Why or why not?
No, because there are some chemicals that filtration can't remove (AJ)
4. Could any other substances still be in the water?
Yes, chemicals (AJ)
5. What would be the danger of drinking the water now?
Bacteria, viruses, and such could still be in it (States)
6. Compare how you cleaned the water with how actual waste water is cleaned. Go to http://www.tresservices.com/WPC_VT_WasteWaterTreatmentProcess.htm Discuss the parts of waste water cleaning that are just like in the lab. Be sure to use the terms used from the website and briefly describe them.
Both methods started off by getting rid of the larger solid peaces, but in the sewage treatment it goes through multiple ways to
7. What parts of waste water treatment from the website did we not do in the lab? Why are they used in waste water treatment?
8. Do a general search for other substances that can be in water that would need to be removed.

Quality of life

Daily items

Home, cell phone, car(s), internet, a yearly trip, modern home accessories, friends, pool, spa, electronics, family

Dream items

total movie collection, junk food, ouch!!, video games, money, shoes, computers, TV entertainment center, every channel know to man, well paying job.

money, electricity, plumbing, water source, heat source
-- Cell phone
phone, plan, charger, electricity
-- Car(s)
gas, keys, oil, cleaning supplies, anti-freeze, air compressor, emergency tools, first aid kit
-- Internet
electricity, computer, money, electric and phone cords, plan, account, e-mail, programing
-- Yearly trip
money, money, money, clothes,

Hydro Electricity


Countries with the most hydroelectricity used.
China, Canada, Brazil, USA, Russia, Norway, India, Japan, Sweden, France

Hydroelectricity is found mostly in three states; California, Oregon, and Washington. Although there are a few other states that can create this form of electricity, these three states create over 1/2 of the total power found by water.

*found info for A.J*
hydro electric- how it works

external image hydrodam.gif

hydroelectricity is made when a dam is built in a high waterflow area.

the water then builds up behind the dam,

a fan blows water into the turbine area, spinning the turbine generating electricity

the energy is then wired to a power house which sends it out to the millions of people waiting for it.

external image hydroturbine.jpg


Electricity produced by dams

Hydro-electric dams produce 10% of our nations electricity and 80% of the electricity produced from renewable resources.
The building of hydro-electric dams effects our rivers, wildlife, and environment. By building new dams we make man made lakes which means we have to back up the river water. This damages the surrounding environment by cutting off the large water supply farther downstream, flooding the environment by the dam with the backed up water, and digging up the environment for the dam and lake. Therefore the building of dams has to be reviewed case-by-case. Also the building of dams is not only an environmental problem in some place but also an economical one. It cost a great deal of money to build a single dam.

The quality of the dams are based off of the following criteria:
  1. river flows
  2. water quality
  3. fish passage and protection
  4. watershed protection
  5. threatened & endangered species protection
  6. cultural resource protection
  7. recreation
  8. facilities recommended for removal

There are three kinds of hydro-electric dams in the U.S.
'Storage' Dams- store water in reservoirs that runs there turbines.
'Run-of-Rivers' Dams- river runs through a powerhouse, producing electricity but also changing the river's water level
'Pumped-Storage' Dams- uses off-peak electricity to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir and in times of high electrical need it dumps the water back into the low reservoir