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Team members:


Light Intensity
We timed the cycle for 7:30 every time and these our are results.

Light intensity is the measure of wavelength emitted by a source in a particular direction. We can only see wavelengths that are between 400 and 700nm. After completing this experiment, we found that a combination of 420nm wavelength and 200lux of light intensity produced the most ATP. A wavelength of 420nm is considered to be violet light. Violet light is the shortest wavelength. The light is scattered the most efficiently in violet light. In wavelengths that have a higher amount of nm, the distance between waves is longer. Also, as the wavelengths gained in nm, the colors that we perceive light as change. Light changes from violet to blue to green to yellow to orange and finally to red. This connects to light intensity, because the shorter the wavelength, the higher the intensity of the light. The only problem with this combination of wavelength and intensity is that the plant would get burnt out very quickly.
This connects to the light reaction of photosynthesis because whenever you have too high of a light intensity, then the plant will not produce the maximum ATP that it can. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html


Exercise Voicethread




Exercise for Health
Devan will be the exerciser.
Mason will be the recorder.
Austin will be the timer.
Our question will be Intensity vs. Endurance.
Our activity will be two shuttle runs.
The shuttle run will be 15 yards long.
To test intensity, Devan will run at his top speed 1 for one lap.
To test intensity, Devan will run for 90 seconds continuously.
After this exercise we will use a ph test to test for the amount of carbon dioxide produced.
Also, we will use bromothymol blue to test for the amount of ph in the water that the exerciser will blow into.


Cell Size Paragraph

There are 3 cubes that were cut off. One is 3 x 3 x 3 cm, another was 2 x 2 x 2 cm, and the last was 1 x 1 x 1 cm. In order to know which of these will survive, we need to know the surface area, volume, and the surface area to volume ratio of each and to know which is the largest of the 3. The 1st one was the 3 x 3 x 3, which had a surface area of 54 cm., a volume of 27 cm cubed, and a surface area to volume ratio of 2:1. The 2nd one was the 2 x 2 x 2, which had a surface area of 24 cm., a volume of 8 cm cubed, and a surface area to volume ratio of 3:1. The 3rd one was the 1 x 1 x 1 that had a surface area of 6 cm, a volume of 1 cm. cubed, and a surface area to volume ratio of 6:1. Therefore, it seems that the 1st one had the largest surface area, volume, and surface area to volume ratio and our hypothesis that says, “the 3 x 3 x 3 will survive" will stay the same. I believe cells are small because if a few die it will not affect the organisms functioning. Cells die everyday on our bodies and are made everyday. So, the cells are made so small because one dieing will not affect the organism because it is easily replaced. Some live longer than others and some take longer to produce.



Voicethread Script

A: Our cell part that we selected is the ribosome.
A: ribosomes are a combination of 65% RNA and 35% proteins that are found in all cells.
A: Ribosomes are extremely important inside the cell. This is because ribosomes create proteins that are used internally inside the cell, and also externally.
A: There can be a few million ribosomes in cell.
A: The process of making proteins is called synthesizing. Translation is the process of assembling the proteins after being made. Mason will tell you more about proteins.
M: Proteins can be used as enzymes or to support other cell functions.
M: Messenger RNA tells the ribosome how to make proteins.
M: The mRNA tells the amino acids the correct sequence to produce proteins.
M: The steps to make the proteins begin with the mRNA combining with ribosome subunits.
M: Then the ribosome connects to a tRNA and then pulls off an amino acid. Meanwhile, the mRNA gives instructions to the ribosome on how to do this process. Devan will tell you the final step in this process.
D: The final step in this process is, for the ribosome to put the amino acid into a chain that will eventually become a larger protein.
D: In brain or pancreas cells, ribosomes are especially abundant.
D: Also, free ribosomes are suspended in cytosol, while others are bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum.



Crayfish Dissection Journal

1/21: We started to dissect the crayfish and take pictures. Devan researched the mandibles and walking legs, Austin researched the telson and intestine, and Mason researched the swimmerets and

1/22: Our group continued to dissect and take pictures of the crayfish. Devan has been assigned the eye and the liver to research, Austin is to research the antenna and antennule, and Mason is to research the cheliped and rostrum.

1/23: Finished crayfish dissection and documentation today. Devan is to research the heart, lungs, eyes, liver, and stomach of the cat, why they are in the positions that they are in, and how they are related to the crayfish. Mason is to research the crayfish for the same organs and information as listed above. Austin is to research the grasshopper and more of the crayfish organs.

1/24: Loaded researched info. onto computers. We started our keynote powerpoint. Devan is researching the abdomen, carapace, anus, and ventral nerve cord. Mason is to research another animal to compare against the crayfish. Austin is identifying more terms and researching snake and grasshopper body parts.

1/25: Mason continued with the power point. Austin researched more crayfish parts and helped with the power point. Devan continued researching crayfish parts and researched the crayfish genitals.

1/28: Took Classification Exam

1/29: Our group continued creating the PowerPoint. We also selected our part of the cell on which we will research.

1/30: We worked on our crayfish lab for one period. Mason continued with the PowerPoint. Devan researched the rainbow trout and started the 3rd assignment on the wiki. Austin finished inserting sources, updated calendar, and started comparison chart.

1/31: Mason worked in class on crayfish PowerPoint. Devan started researching on how the crayfish compares with other crustaceans. Austin started to place the comparisons of the crayfish and other animals on the wiki.

2/4: In activity period Mason worked on the powerpoint, Austin worked on the crayfish comparisons, and Devan worked on the comparisons of the crayfish to different crustaceans. Austin and Devan are working on the comparisons of the crayfish for homework.

2/5: Devan put the crayfish classification chart on the wiki. Austin and Mason both worked on comparisons of the crayfish to other animals.





Crayfish Classification Order


Name
Similarity to other animals
Difference to other animals
Kingdom
Animalia
Most will have this kingdom.
Few won't.
Phylum
Arthropoda/Crustacea
Animals like spiders and crab will have these phylums.
Animals like chickens and turtles won't have either of these phylums.
Class
Malacostraca
Some will have a soft shell.
Some don't have a soft shell.
Order
Decapoda
Some will have Malacostraca as a class in order to have this order.
Some don't have Malacostraca as a class.

Sources:
www.science.mcmaster.ca/Biology/Harbour/SPECIES/CRAYFISH/CRAYFISH.HTM
www.shrimpcrabsandcrayfish.co.uk/Shrimp.htm?Anatomy.htmn~mainFrance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxilliped
www.infovisual.info/02/024_en.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telson
http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/intestine
www.herpetology.com/anatomy.html
http://kentsimmons.unwinniped.ca/16cm05/16labman05/lb6pg14.htm
http://kentsimmons.unwinniped.ca/16cm05/16labman05/lb6pg19.htm
http://kentsimmons.unwinniped.ca/16cm05/16labman05/lb6pg17.htm
www.geocities.com/brisbane_insects/GrasshopperHead.htm
http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/clientED/anatomy/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver
http://pawsonline.info/anatomy.htm
http://www.infovisual.info/02/025_en.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carapace
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/Table_of_Contents/Lab-7b/Crayfish_Sexes/crayfish_sexes.htm
http://whttp://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=17&cat=1831&articleid=2974wwpeteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=17&cat=1831&articleid=2974
http://www.scienceclass.com/dissect/teacher_materials/glossary/crayfish_glossary.html
http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/clientED/anatomy/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver
http://pawsonline.info/anatomy.htm
http://www.2.gsu.edu/~bioasx/zindex.htm
http://www.mackers.com/crayfish/info.htm#internal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacostraca



Comparison of the Crayfish and its organs to other Animals and their organs.



Crayfish
Structure
Function
Heart
Located under the carapace of the thorax. The crayfish has a open circulatory system. The blood flows from the heart through the arteries back into open sinuses.
Lungs
They are called gills. The water rushes over the gills therefore exchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen. They are located between the cephalathorax and the lateral body wall in the branchial chamber.
Stomach
This is called the cardiac stomach. It gets the food from the esophagus and stores it, before being sent to the gastric mill for further grinding.
Liver
Also known as the digestive gland. It secrets digestive enzymes which aid in digestion. It is located in the right side of the crayfish.
Eye
The crayfish has 2 compound eyes, which are located on each side of the head. They set on short stalks. Each eye has over 2,000 lenses that detect light and movement from poor visual images.

Snake

Structure
Function
Comparison
Heart
The heart is located behind the head and between the lungs. They are able to move their heart around because they don't have a diaphragm. This helps them swallow large prey. Snakes have a 3-chambered heart.
Their hearts are located nearly in the same location. They both pump blood throughout the body.
Lungs
The left lung is located in front of the heart, and the right lung is located to the right and behind the heart.
The crayfish use gills to breath and the snake uses lungs and they arepractically the same. The gills are located near the head just as the lungs are in the snake.
Stomach
The snake has a very elastic and strong stomach to help obtain large prey. They have strong digestive juices that nearly digest all of their prey including the teeth and bones.
The snakes stomach nearly digests everything but the crayfish's stomach doesn't.
Liver
The liver is located in the middle of the snake, between the stomach and air sac. It produces bile, digestive enzyme.
Both the crayfishes digestive gland and the snakes liver produce digestive enzymes which help break down food.
Eye
Their eyes are located on each side of the head. Snakes have transparent caps called "brille" that protect their eyes, instead of movable eyelids.
The snakes eyes are "fixed", meaning they don't move like the crayfish's. Both allow the animals to see, and they are both located in the same positions.

Cat

Structure
Function
Comparison
Heart
It pumps and carries blood to the rest of the body via heart and blood vessels. The heart positioned below the lungs because the heart needs the oxygen to replenish the expended blood.
Both pumps blood throughout the body.
Lungs
The lungs take in oxygen and eliminate waste gases such as carbon dioxide. They are above the heart because they are needed to replenish the expended air.
Both takes in oxygen in order for them to breathe. But the crayfish use gills instead of lungs.
Stomach
The stomach digests and absorbs food. It is located above the intestines because the next stop for the food is the intestine.
Both absorb and digest food.
Liver
The liver produces bile and processes the nutrients with the flow of the blood. It is located left of the stomach because the stomach needs the bile form the liver to break down and digest food.
Both produces bile and processes the nutrients with the flow of blood.
Eye
Allows the cat to see dim and non-dim light. They are positioned on both the left and right side of the head.
Both uses the eyes to see.

Grasshopper

Structure
Function
Comparison
Heart
They have an open circulatory system. Their "blood" is called hemolymph.
Both the crayfish and grasshopper have an open circulatory system. They both use is to pump blood or hemolymph to the rest of the body.
Lungs
The grasshopper breathes through tiny holes in the abdomen called spiracles. When the air enters the spiracles it goes to a system of branching tubules. The tubes then branch repeatedly and they become known as tracheoles. Then the tracheoles reach the individual cells or small groups of cells inside the body.
Grasshoppers get their nutrients from the air through spiracles. Crayfish receive it from the water through gills.
Stomach
The stomach is located under the aorta and behind the crop and the gastric caeca. It is attached to the gastric caeca which produces enzymes, which are secreted into the stomach to aid in digestion.
In the crayfish, more than one stomach is used to digest food. Also, each stomach does not digest the food with as much strength as one stomach.
Liver
The crop is what the grasshopper has instead of a liver.
The grasshopper uses a crop. The crayfish uses a digestive gland instead of a liver.
Eye
The eye is composed of a number of individual units, called ommatidia. Their eyes can see shape, color, movement, tell distance, and they have a large field of vision.
They both have compound eyes, which means that they are made of many tiny parts. They are both located on the sides of their heads.

Rainbow Trout

Structure
Function
Comparison
Heart
Distributes blood to other parts of the fish, it has 2 chambers.
Both pump blood throughout the body.
Lungs
Takes in oxygen from the water and eliminates waste gases.
Both takes in oxygen in order for them to breathe.
Stomach
Absorbs and digests food.
Both absorb and digest food.
Liver
Produces bile and processes nutrients with the flow of blood.
Both of their livers produce bile and processes nutrients with the flow of blood.
Eye
Acts like a camera to see what they're looking for.
Both uses the eyes to see.



Crayfish Slide Show Presentation






Candy Classification
. The problem: We were given 9-10 candies and asked to make a dichotomous key that could be used by another person unfamiliar with the candies.

Candies_By_Lucas_Burke,.jpg