JocelynH Cell Portfolio Page EmilyF

Monohybrid Crosses and Probability

Activity one: Tossing one penny

What is the chance that a penny will turn up heads?
The chance a penny will turn up heads is 1/2.

What are the possible outcomes?How do you find this?
The possible outcomes are either heads or tails because the penny only has two sides.

If a penny is tossed 100 times, how many times will it turn up heads? What is the probability?
If a penny is tossed 100 times the probability it will turn up heads is 50% or 1/2 (50 times).

How many times did you get heads and tails for 10 times and 100 times? What are the probabilities?
When we tossed our penny 100 times it turned up heads 44 times and tails 56 times, the probability for heads is 11/25 and for tails is 14/25. When we tosses our pennies 10 times the results were that we got 2 heads and 8 tails, the probability is 1/5 for heads and 4/5 for tails.

How close it is to the expected number of heads and tails for 100 flips?
The expected number is somewhat close, but is not exact. Heads was off by 6 and tails was off by 6.


Activity two: Tossing two pennies


What is the chance that you will get both heads? A head and a tail? Both tails?
The chance that you will bet both heads is 1/3. The chance that you will bet a head and a tail is 1/3. The chance that you will bet both tails is 1/3.

Toss your two pennies in your group 100 times. What are the percent of the outcomes? What should the percent of the outcomes be?
The percent of the outcomes are:
Both Heads: 24/100 (24%)
Heads and Tails: 56/100 (56%)
Both Tails: 20/100 (20%)
The percent of the outcomes should be 33.3%.

Activity three: Monohybrid cross (Possible outcomes of one trait):
What we already know:
What we still need to know:
Questions we have:
Answers to our questions:
Half orange and half yellow produced two yellow and two orange
All orange produced two orange, one yellow, and one red
Each egg has 4 offspring
What happens when two recessive
genes are put together
What the parent egg has to do with the possible offspring
What determines the outcome of the kids traits?
We think it is a random process.

R
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Rr
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Rr
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R
r
R
RR
Rr
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Rr
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The first chart represents one parent that is orange and one that is yellow.
The seconds chart represents two orange parents.



Protein Models


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Translation above!



Gel Electrophoresis Part 1


We believe that Suspect 2 is the guilty person. This is due to the fact that the DNA bands of Crime Scene DNA Enzyme 2 traveled the same distance down the gel as Suspect 2 DNA Enzyme 2. This means that Suspect 2 is guilty. All the rest of the bands were past these 2 bands and 4 of them were together. This has no significance to the case.

Gel Electrophoresis Part 2


We think that the person labeled "father" is not the actually father of the child. This is due to the fact that the bands of the "father" and the "child" do not match or travel the same distance. He is just claiming to be him. The person labeled "child father" is the actual father of the child. This is because the bands of both the child father and the child traveled the same distance.


Gel Electrophoresis Picture


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Mitosis Model

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Anaphase

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Emily and Jocelyn's Project for Replication

DNA Replication


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Occurs:
DNA replication occurs in the S phase of Mitosis. The S phase occurs after the G1 phase (cell growth) and before the G2 phase (preparation for mitosis).

Process:
It all starts when a parent molecule unzips as the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs break. DNA helicase is the enzyme that unwinds the double helix, to make it go from a spiral staircase to a straight ladder. These two strands become the templates for the new bases to be produced. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates make it possible for the new strands of DNA to be formed. The nucleotides that are coming in form together with a carbon atom while a molecule of pyrophosphate when the second and third phosphates are removed. The nucleotides then combine in the pattern the templates require (C goes with G and A goes with T). DNA Polymerase then inserts the bases into the templates, developing two DNA strands, completing DNA replication.

Information on Vocabulary Words


Telomeres:
Long stretches at the ends of the chromosome are telomeres. They help the many chromosomes in the cell not attach to each other at their ends. There is a sequence of telomeres in humans that is repeated over 2000 times (5' TTAGGG 3'). If the cells would not have telomeres and still divide, then they would end up losing the ends of their chromosomes and the crucial information within them. The shortening of telomeres in humans helps to block cell division which in turn prevents humans to get cancer by limiting cell division.

Okazaki fragments:
This is a complementary strand that works on the opposite direction that DNA polymerase makes. These fragments are made from the replication machinery to produce a never ending DNA strand, which is a finished daughter DNA helix.

DNA ligase:
This is what attaches to okazaki fragments. DNA ligase links together DNA strands that have double-strand breaks. This is also needed to make the final phosphodiester bond to completly repair the DNA. DNA ligase is needed for DNA replication and DNA repair. There is a ligase reaction that needs ATP. The reaction is that is makes covalent phosphodiester bonds in between 3' ends of hydroxyl of a nucleotide and a 5' end of phosphate. There are many types of DNA ligase which are DNA ligase I, II, III, IV.

Telomerase:
The 3' end of DNA strands will have a telomere repeat sequence because of this enzyme. With the help of this strand DNA polymerase can finish the making of the not finished ends on the other strand. Telomerase is only found in cancer cells, adult stem cells, unicellular eukaryotes, and germline cells. Also, if there was an agent to help prevent telomerase from acting or help it from occurring in a gene, could help fight cancer.

Cancer:
Cancer cells can divide continually and form from stomatic cells. There are two types of cancers which are malignant (cancerous) and benign (not cancerous). Unfortunately, people an stil die from either of these two cancers. 13% of all deaths occur due to cancer. Also, cancer can affect humans, animals, and plants. Cancers can form because of mutations in genetic material of the transformed cells. Some of these abnormalities also can occur because of carcinogens (smoke from tobacco, chemicals, and radiation).

Transplanted cells:
A stem cell transplant is when you infuse new and healty stem cells into your body. This would be necessary to help your body make healthy white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells. This would lower your risk of getting life-threatening infections. Stem cell transplants can also help people with cancerous and non cancerous diseases.

Cloning:
This is when you make an exact replica of something like DNA cells, fragments, or organisms. When you clone a DNA fragment you need to go through four steps (fragmentation, ligation, transfection, and screening/selection). When you clone a cell, this means you make a lot of cells from a single cell. Also, when you clone an organism, this means you make a new multicellular organisms that is genetically identical to the other one.

Aging:
Aging refers to a change in an organism over a period of time. This change can be physical, mental, or social. Over time, the genetic material that makes up a human can damage. This could block DNA replication.

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Lettuce Pictures

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Guard Cells- control the stomatal openings in the epidermis of the leaf and is responsible for regulating the size of the opening. There are three environmental factors that help to regulate them. They are the water availability, CO2, and light.

Stomata- this is used for gas exchange. CO2 can go into the stomata, H2O and O2 can go out of the stomata.

Stomata in the Process of photosynthesis:
In a case that the stomata would close during photosynthesis, photosynthesis would not be able to occur because carbon dioxide must first pass through stomata into inner spaces in the leaf. It then transfers into mesophyll cells to be become eligible for the process of photosynthesis. The stomata closing would prevent the light independent reactions to occur. Guard cells protect the stoma while regulating the rate of the openings and closings in the stomata. Therefore without the guard cells the stomata could be closed the whole time and would not be able absorb carbon dioxide to start photosynthesis.



Light Intensity!!!

By: Emily Forrest, Jocelyn Hughes, Lindsey Paulina, and Tawnee Bowers


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Plan for Experiment: Jocelyn and Emily did the 5 minute light intensity activity several times while manipulating one variable at a time. Lindsey wrote down all the results of what we did and what happened. Tawnee researched the background information on light intensity.
Average wavelength 575 and average light intensity is 100.

Variables
% Maximal ATP
ATP created in 5 min.
Light intensity
Wavelength
Increased light intensity 100-160
9.6
5
160
575
Increased Wavelength 575-650
42.5
21
100
650
Decreased Light intensity 100-40
2.4
4
40
575
Decreased Wavelength 575-450
7.5
4
100
450
Results:
With increased wavelength light intensity was 100, wavelength was 650, maximal ATP % 42.5, and number of ATP 21.
Increased light intensity- light intensity was 160, wavelength was 575 ,maximal ATP % 9.6, and the number of ATP 5.
With lowered light intensity the wavelength 575, light intensity was 40, number of ATP was 2, and maximal % of ATP was 2.4.
With lowered wavelength the wavelength was 450, light intensity was 100 ,ATP was 4, and maximal % of ATP was 7.5
The change in light intensity does not seem to make much of a difference whereas the change in wavelength has a greater impact on ATP production.
To get 100% ATP wavelength was set at 425 ( low for wavelength) and light intensity was set at 200 (which is the highest light intensity can go).
Light intensity is measured in lux and wavelength is measured in nm.
*The best possible condition for making the maximum ATP would have the light intensity of 200 and the wavelength of 425.

Background information and Questions Answered


o measured in candelas or watts
o lighting radiations come from the warming of a given material by which energy radiates.
wavelength-the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency. the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength

Energy- is known as ATP in photosynthesis; a scalar physical quantity that is a property of objects and systems which is conserved by nature

Color of actual light- a small portion of the electro magnetic spectrum; the colors of our rainbow

Light Intensity:
Light intensity is important in photosynthesis in that photosynthesis is light dependent. When light intensity is low, it becomes the limiting factor in the process. This is the clear reason on why most plants grow better outdoors than inside the house.

The relation among energy, frequency, and wavelength:
The energy of a wave is directly proportional to its frequency, but inversely proportional to its wavelength. In other words, the greater the energy, the larger the frequency and the shorter (smaller) the wavelength. Given the relationship between wavelength and frequency described above, it follows that short wavelengths are more energetic than long wavelengths.

Light Reaction:
In the Light light reaction, light strikes chlorophyll a in such a way as to excite electrons to a higher energy form. In a series of reactions the energy is converted, in electron tranport processes,into ATP and NADPH. Water is split in the process, releasing oxygen as a by-product of the reaction. The ATP and NADPH are used to make C-C bonds in the Dark Reactions.

Dark Reaction:
In the Dark reactions, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is captured and modified by the addition of Hydrogen to form carbohydrates (general formula of carbohydrates is [CH2O]n). The interference of carbon dioxide into organic compounds is known as carbon fixation. The energy for this comes from the first phase of the photosynthetic process. Living systems cannot directly utilize light energy, but can, through a complicated series of reactions, convert it into C-C bond energy that can be released by glycolysis and other metabolic processes.

Wavelength and Frequency:
Wavelength and frequency of light are related in that the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. Since all light waves move through a vacuum at the same speed, the number of wave crests passing by a given point in one second depends on the wavelength. That number (frequency) will be larger for a short-wavelength wave than for a long-wavelength wave.

How to be Cool


by Jocelyn Hughes, Tawnee Bowers, Emily Forrest, and Lindsey Paulina




Our Question is:
What is the difference between how efficiently an athlete cools themselves and how a non-athlete cools themselves?

Non-athlete test subject - Emily Forrest
Athlete test subject - Jocelyn Hughes
We will both be doing plyometrics to break out in a sweat to see the different reactions.

butt kicks - 30 seconds
high knees - 30 seconds
high skips - 30 seconds
karoakes - 30 seconds
running - 60 seconds


Hypothesis:
We thought Jocelyn's body would be more efficient in the cooling process since her muscles and metabolism were both already adapted to the activity. Emily's body was used to very little strain and a lot of energy consumption, so her body would have a harder time adjusting.

Results:
Jocelyn's pH
before exercising - 7.15
after exercising - 7.45
Jocelyn's pH level increased by .30.

Emily's pH
before exercising - 9.03
after exercising - 8.45
Emily's pH level decreased by .58.


What does this mean?
As you can see, Jocelyn's pH level went up from the exercise and Emily's went down. We deduced that this was because Emily is out of shape from not exercising and Jocelyn is in shape. Jocelyn's body would be more efficient in the way it burns energy, so she would not need as much pH in her blood when she is sitting down. When she starts exercising, her body produces enough to keep her level up, since it is so accustomed to the strain. Emily's body is used to not really requiring much energy, so it is less efficient. This causes her pH level to be higher even when she is not exercising. When she does exercise, her body is unfamiliar with the increased exertion of energy so her pH levels drop. In the end, this proves the theory we had about Emily being less efficient at cooling herself than Jocelyn.

How is this applied to exercise?
This is applied to exercise because if we exercise regularly our bodies will become more efficient in the way they use energy. When you first get into the routine of exercising you will feel exhausted and out of breath afterwards. Once you are in shape, however, you actually feel better. Another key part of your body producing energy well is what you eat. If you eat things like chocolate that have mainly simple sugars, you will feel great right afterwards, when the sugars have been absorbed into your bloodstream; after they are used, however, your body crashes and is left with virtually no energy source. A good source of quick, healthy energy (complex carbs as well as simple) is a banana. A good source for very long-term energy would be pasta.

How is this related to life?
This is related to life's processes because as you can see an athlete (Jocelyn) will use less of the glucose storage because she was used to exercising at this pace. Her body used less and didn't need to repair or rebuild the storage as much as the non athlete did. The non athlete (Emily) used more of her glucose storage because she was not used to exercising at this pace. Her body used more and needed to repair or rebuild the storage more than the athletes. After the exercise the non athlete was out of breath and the athlete was fine.



Enzyme Investigation by: Jocelyn Hughes, Tawnee Bowers, and Emily Forrest
Questions:
1. Why does the hydrogen peroxide bubble?
2. Why is the water murky for some materials and clear for others?
3. Why were there bubbles clinging to the substance?
4. Why did other bubbles float to the surface of the hydrogen peroxide?

Answers:
1. Hydrogen peroxide bubbles because the the liver and ground beef that it came into contact with had red blood cells in them. These red blood cells have an enzyme in them called catalase. When the hydrogen peroxide and catalase come together it turns the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, forming bubbles.

2. The water is murky for some materials and clear for others because some of the test tubes contained hot water. Hot water is murky because it is has a lot of tiny air bubbles inside it. They will pop when the hot water cools down.

3. Bubbles are clinging to the substance because air bubbles need a surface to cling to. The surface of the substance is rough, so the bubbles have an easier time holding on to it.

4. Other bubbles floated to the surface of the hydrogen peroxide because they were either knocked of the surface of the substance by the test tube being picked up or moved around by us, or another air bubble knocked it off the surface.

CHART


Room Temp.
hot
cold
ground beef
o Bubbly
o Foamy
o Floated to top
o Clear water
o Floated to top
o Bubbly
o Really foamy
o Not clear water
o Little foamy
o Bubbles
o Floated to top
o Clear
liver
o Foamed a lot
o Turned brown
o Acted as if it were “cooking”
o Became bubbly
o Altogether the liver showed to best reaction
grapes
o Turned white
o Fizzed
o Murky
o A little foamy
o fizzed








Crayfish Log
(dated 2/6)up




Candy dichotomous key


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Mitochondria Voice Thread**

You can vote Mitochonria out of the cell, but then it won't live long. The Mitochonria is the powerhouse of the cell. This means it releases energy that is contained in food. Without this energy, the cell cannot keep functioning properly and will die. The energy-rich molecule is ATP. This is produced in the Mitochondria using energy stored in food by the process of respiration.